Monday, September 30, 2019


FARMWOMAN Thd Speakers sat about the table, frozen in their mental shielding. It was as though all – with one accord – had hidden their minds to avoid irrevocable insult to the First Speaker after his statement concerning Trevize. Surreptitiously they glanced toward Delarmi and even that gave away much. Of them all, she was best known for her irreverence – Even Gendibal paid more lip service to convention. Delarmi was aware of the glances and she knew that she had no choice but to face up to this impossible situation. In fact, she did not want to duck the issue. In all the history of the Second Foundation, no First Speaker had ever been impeached for misanalysis (and behind the term, which she had invented as cover-up, was the unacknowledged incompetence). Such impeachment now became possible. She would not hang back. â€Å"First Speaker!† she said softly, her thin, colorless lips more nearly invisible than usual in the general whiteness of her face. â€Å"You yourself say you have no basis for your opinion, that the psychohistorical mathematics show nothing Do you ask us to base a crucial decision on a mystical feeling?† The First Speaker looked up, his forehead corrugated. He was aware of the universal shielding at the Table. He knew what it meant. He said coldly, â€Å"I do not hide the lack of evidence. I present you with nothing falsely. What I offer is the strongly intuitive feeling of a First Speaker, one with decades of experience who has spent nearly a lifetime in the close analysis of the Seldon Plan.† He looked about him with a proud rigidity he rarely displayed, and one by one the mental shields softened and dropped. Delarmi's (when he turned to stare at her) was the last. She said, with a disarming frankness that filled her mind as though nothing else had ever been there, â€Å"I accept your statement, of course, First Speaker. Nevertheless, I think you might perhaps want to reconsider. As you think about it now, having already expressed shame at having to fall back on intuition, would you wish your remarks to be stricken from the record if, in your judgment they should be†¦Ã¢â‚¬  And Gendibal's voice cut in. â€Å"What are these remarks that should. be stricken from the record?† Every pair of eyes turned in unison. Had their shields not been up during the crucial moments before, they would have been aware of his approach long before he was at the door. â€Å"All shields up a moment ago? All unaware of my entrance?† said Gendibal sardonically. â€Å"What a commonplace meeting of the Table we have here. Was no one on their guard for my coming? Or did you all fully expect that I would not arrive?† This outburst was a flagrant violation of all standards. For Gendibal to arrive late was bad enough. For him to then enter unannounced was worse. For him to speak before the First Speaker had acknowledged his attendance was worst of all. The First Speaker turned to him. All else was superceded. The question of discipline came first. â€Å"Speaker Gendibal,† he said, â€Å"you are late. You arrive unannounced. You speak. Is there any reason why you should not be suspended from your seat for thirty days?† â€Å"Of course. The move for suspension should not be considered until first we consider who it was that made it certain I would be late – and why.† Gendibal's words were cool and measured, but his mind clothed his thoughts with anger and he did not care who sensed it. Certainly Delarmi sensed it. She said forcefully, â€Å"This man is mad.† â€Å"Mad? This woman is mad to say so. Or aware of guilt. – First Speaker, I address myself to you and move a point of personal privilege,† said Gendibal. â€Å"Personal privilege of what nature, Speaker?† â€Å"First Speaker, I accuse someone here of attempted murder.† The room exploded as every Speaker rose to his or her feet in a simultaneous babble of words, expression, and mentality. The First Speaker raised his arms. He cried, â€Å"The Speaker must have his chance to express his point of personal privilege.† He found himself forced to intensify his authority, mentally, in a manner most inappropriate to the place – yet there was no choice. The babble quieted. Gendibal waited unmoved until the silence was both audibly and mentally profound. He said, â€Å"On my way here, moving along a Hamish road at a distance and approaching at a speed that would have easily assured my arrival in good time for the meeting, I was stopped by several farmers and narrowly escaped being beaten, perhaps being killed. As it was, I was delayed and have but just arrived. May I point out, to begin with, that I know of no instance since the Great Sack that a Second Foundationer has been spoken to disrespectfully – let alone manhandled – by one of these Hamish people.† â€Å"Nor do I,† said the First Speaker. Delarmi cried out, â€Å"Second Foundationers do not habitually walk alone in Hamish territory! You invite this by doing so?† â€Å"It is true,† said Gendibal, â€Å"that I habitually walk alone in Hamish territory. I have walked there hundreds of times in every direction. Yet I have never been accosted before. Others do not walk with the freedom that I do, but no one exiles himself from the world or imprisons himself in the University and no one has ever been accosted. I recall occasions when Delarmi†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and then, as though remembering the honorific too late, he deliberately converted it into a deadly insult. â€Å"I mean to say, I recall when Speakeress Delarmi was in Hamish territory, at one time or another, and yet she was not accosted.† â€Å"Perhaps,† said Delarmi, with eyes widened into a glare, â€Å"because I did not speak to them first and because I maintained my distance. Because I behaved as though I deserved respect, I was accorded it.† â€Å"Strange,† said Gendibal, â€Å"and I was about to say that it was because you presented a more formidable appearance than I did. After all, few dare approach you even here. – But tell me, why should it be that of all times for interference, the Hamish would choose this day to face me, when I am to attend an important meeting of the Table?† â€Å"If it were not because of your behavior, then it must ‘have been chance,† said Delarmi. â€Å"I have not heard that even all of Seldon's mathematics has removed the role of chance from the Galaxy – certainly not in the case of individual events. Or are you, too, speaking from intuitional inspiration?† (There was a soft mental sigh from one or two Speakers at this sideways thrust at the First Speaker.) â€Å"It was not my behavior. It was not chance. It was deliberate interference,† said Gendibal. â€Å"How can we know that?† asked the First Speaker gently. He could not help but soften toward Gendibal as a result of Delarmi's last remark. â€Å"My mind is open to you, First Speaker. I give you – and all the Table – my memory of events.† The transfer took but a few moments. The First Speaker said, â€Å"Shocking! You behaved very well, Speaker, under circumstances of considerable pressure. I agree that the Hamish behavior is anomalous and warrants investigation. In the meantime, please join our meeting†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"A moments† cut in Delarmi. â€Å"How certain are we that the Speaker's account is accurate?† Gendibal's nostrils flared at the insult, but he retained his level composure. â€Å"My mind is open:† â€Å"I have known open minds that were not open.† â€Å"I have no doubt of that, Speaker,† said Gendibal, â€Å"since you, like the rest of us, must keep your own mind under inspection at all times. My mind, when open, however, is open.† The First Speaker said, â€Å"Let us have no further†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"A point of personal privilege, First Speaker, with apologies for the interruption,† said Delarmi. â€Å"Personal privilege of what nature, Speaker?† â€Å"Speaker Gendibal has accused one of us of attempted murder, presumably by instigating the farmer to attack him. As long as the accusation is not withdrawn, I must be viewed as a possible murderer, as would every person in this room – including you, First Speaker.† The First Speaker said, â€Å"Would you withdraw the accusation, Speaker Gendibal?† Gendibal took his seat and put his hands down upon its arms, gripping them tightly, as though taking ownership of it, and said, â€Å"I will do so, as soon as someone explains why a Hamish farmer, rallying several others, should deliberately set out to delay me on my way to this meeting.† â€Å"A thousand reasons, perhaps,† said the First Speaker. â€Å"I repeat that this event will be investigated. Will you, for now, Speaker Gendibal, and in the interest of continuing the present discussion, withdraw your accusation?† â€Å"I cannot, First Speaker. I spent long minutes trying, as delicately as I might, to search his mind for ways to alter his behavior without damage and failed. His mind lacked the give it should have had. His emotions were fixed, as though by an outside mind.† Delarmi said with a sudden little smile, â€Å"And you think one of us was the outside mind? Might it not have been your mysterious organization that is competing with us, that is more powerful than we are?† â€Å"It might,† said GendibaI. â€Å"In that case, we – who are not members of this organization that only you know of – are not guilty and you should withdraw your accusation. Or can it be that you are accusing someone here of being under the control of this strange organization? Perhaps one of us here is not quite what he or she seems?† â€Å"Perhaps,† said Gendibal stolidly, quite aware that Delarmi was feeding him rope with a noose at the end of it. â€Å"It might seem,† said Delarmi, reaching the noose and preparing to tighten it, â€Å"that your dream of a secret, unknown, hidden, mysterious organization is a nightmare of paranoia. It would ft in with your paranoid fantasy that Hamish farmers are being influenced, that Speakers are under hidden control. I am willing, however, to follow this peculiar thought line of yours for a while longer. Which of us here, Speaker, do you think is under control? Might it be me?† Gendibal said, â€Å"I would not think so, Speaker. If you were attempting to rid yourself of me in so indirect a manner, you would not so openly advertise your dislike for me.† â€Å"A double-double-cross, perhaps?† said Delarmi. She was virtually purring. â€Å"That would be a common conclusion in a paranoid fantasy.† â€Å"So it might be. You are more experienced in such matters than I. â€Å"† Speaker Lestim Gianni interrupted hotly. â€Å"See here, Speaker Gendibal, if you are exonerating Speaker Delarmi, you are directing your accusations the more tightly at the rest of us. What grounds would any of us have to delay your presence at this meeting, let alone wish you dead?† Gendibal answered quickly, as though he had been waiting for the question. â€Å"When I entered, the point under discussion was the striking of remarks from the record, remarks made by the First Speaker. I was the only Speaker not in a position to hear those remarks. Let me know what they were and I rather think I will tell you the motive for delaying me.† The First Speaker said, â€Å"I had stated – and it was something to which Speaker Delarmi and others took serious exception – that I had decided, on the basis of intuition and of a most inappropriate use of psychohistorical mathematics, that the entire future of the Plan may rest on the exile of First Foundationer Golan Trevize:† Gendibal said, â€Å"What other Speakers may think is up to them. For my part, I agree with this hypothesis. Trevize is the key. I find his sudden ejection by the First Foundation too curious to be innocent.† Delarmi said, â€Å"Would you care to say, Speaker Gendibal, that Trevize is in the grip of this mystery organization – or that the people who exiled him are? Is perhaps everyone and everything in their control except you and the First Speaker – and me, whom you have declared to be uncontrolled?† Gendibal said, â€Å"These ravings require no answer. Instead let me ask if there is any Speaker here who would like to express agreement on this matter with the First Speaker and myself? You have read, I presume, the mathematical treatment that I have, with the First Speaker's approval, circulated among you.† There was silence. â€Å"I repeat my request,† said Gendibal. â€Å"Anyone?† There was silence. Gendibal said, â€Å"First Speaker, you now have the motive for delaying me.† The First Speaker said, â€Å"State it explicitly.† â€Å"You have expressed the need to deal with Trevize, with this First Foundationer. It represents an important initiative in policy and if the Speakers had read my treatment, they would have known in a general way what was in the wind. If, nevertheless, they had unanimously disagreed with you – unanimously – then, by traditional self-limitation, you would have been unable to go forward. If even one Speaker backed you, then you would be able to implement this new policy. I was the one Speaker who would back yon, as anyone who had read my treatment would know, and it was necessary that I must, at all costs, be kept from the Table. That trick proved nearly successful, but I am now here and I back the First Speaker. I agree with him and he can, in accordance with tradition, disregard the disagreement of the ten other Speakers.† Delarmi struck the table with her fist. â€Å"The implication is that someone knew in advance what the First Speaker would advise, knew in advance that Speaker Gendibal would support it and that all the rest would not – that someone knew what he could not have known. There is the further implication that this initiative is not to the liking of Speaker Gendibal's paranoia-inspired organization and that they are fighting to prevent it and that, therefore, one or more of us is under the control of that organization:† â€Å"The implication is there,† agreed Gendibal. â€Å"Your analysis is masterly.† â€Å"Whom do you accuse?† cried out Delarmi. â€Å"No one. I call upon the First Speaker to take up the matter. It is clear that there is someone in our organization who is working against us. I suggest that everyone working for the Second Foundation should undergo a thorough mental analysis. Everyone, including the Speakers themselves. Even including myself – and the First Speaker.† The meeting of the Table broke up in greater confusion and greater excitement than any on record. And when the First Speaker finally spoke the phrase of adjournment, Gendibal – without speaking to anyone – made his way back to his room. He knew well that he had not one friend among the Speakers, that even whatever support the First Speaker could give him would be half-hearted at best. He could not tell whether he feared for himself or for the entire Second Foundation. The taste of doom was sour in his mouth. Gendibal did not sleep well. His waking thoughts and his sleeping dreams were alike engaged in quarreling with Delora Delarmi. In one passage of one dream, there was even a confusion between her and the Hamish farmer, Rufirant, so that Gendibal found himself facing an out-of-proportion Delarmi advancing upon him with enormous fists and a sweet smile that revealed needlelike teeth. He finally woke, later than usual, with no sensation of having rested and with the buzzer on his night table in muted action. He turned over to bring his hand down upon the contact. â€Å"Yes? What is it?† â€Å"Speaker!† The voice was that of the floor proctor, rather less than suitably respectful. â€Å"A visitor wishes to speak to you:† â€Å"A visitor?† Gendibal punched his appointment schedule and the screen showed nothing before noon. He pushed the time button; it was 8:31 a.m. He said peevishly, â€Å"Who in space and time is it?† â€Å"Will not give a name, Speaker.† Then, with clear disapproval, â€Å"One of these Hamishers, Speaker. Arrived at your invitation.† The last sentence was said with even clearer disapproval. â€Å"Let him wait in the reception room till I come down. It will take time.† Gendibal did not hurry. Throughout the morning ablutions, he remained lost in thought. That someone was using the Hamish to hamper his movements made sense – but he would like to know who that someone was. And what was this new intrusion of the Hamish into his very quarters? A complicated trap of some sort? How in the name of Seldon would a Hamish farmer get into the University? What reason could he advance? What reason could he really have? For one fleeting moment, Gendibal wondered if he ought to arm himself. He decided against it almost at once, since he felt contemptuously certain of being able to control any single farmer on the University grounds without any danger to himself – and without any unacceptable marking of a Hamish mind. Gendibal decided he had been too strongly affected by the incident with Karoll Rufirant the day before. – Was it the very farmer, by the way? no longer under the influence, perhaps – of whatever or whoever it washe might well have come to Gendibal to apologize for what he had done and with apprehension of punishment. – But how would Rufirant know where to go? Whom to approach? Gendibal swung down the corridor resolutely and entered the waiting room. He stopped in astonishment, then fumed to the proctor, who was pretending to be busy in his glass-walled cubicle. â€Å"Proctor, you did not say the visitor was a woman.† The proctor said quietly, â€Å"Speaker, I said a Hamisher. You did not ask further.† â€Å"Minimal information, Proctor? I must remember that as one of your characteristics.† (And he must check to see if the proctor was a Delarmi appointee. And he must remember, from now on, to note the functionaries who surrounded him, â€Å"Lowlies† whom it was too easy to ignore from the height of his still-new Speakership.) â€Å"Are any of the conference rooms available?† The proctor said, â€Å"Number 4 is the only one available, Speaker. It will be free for three hours.† He glanced briefly at the Hamishwoman, then at Gendibal, with blank innocence. â€Å"We will use Number 4, Proctor, and I would advise you to mind your thoughts.† Gendibal struck, not gently, and the proctor's shield closed far too slowly. Gendibal knew well it was beneath his dignity to manhandle a lesser mind, but a person who was incapable of shielding an unpleasant conjecture against a superior ought to learn not to indulge in one. The proctor would have a mild headache for a few hours. It was well deserved. Her name did not spring immediately to mind and Gendibal was in no mood to delve deeper. She could scarcely expect him to remember, in any case. He said peevishly, â€Å"You are†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"I be Novi, Master Scowler,† she said in what was almost a gasp. â€Å"My previous be Sura, but I be called Novi plain.† â€Å"Yes. Novi. We met yesterday; I remember now. I have not forgotten that you came to my defense.† He could not bring himself to use the Hamish accent on the very University grounds. â€Å"Now how did you get here?† â€Å"Master, you said I might write letter. You said, it should say, ‘Speaker's House, Apartment 27' I self-bring it and I show the writing – my own writing, Master.† She said it with a kind of bashful pride. â€Å"They ask, ‘For whom be this writing?' I heared your calling when you said it to that oafish bane-top, Rufirant. I say it be for Stor Gendibal, Master Scowler.† â€Å"And they let you pass, Novi? Didn't they ask to see the letter?† â€Å"I be very frightened. I think maybe they feel gentle-sorry. I said, ‘Scowler Gendibal promise to show me Place of Scowlers,' and they smile. One of them at gate-door say to other, ‘And that not all he be show her.' And they show me where to go, and say not to go elseplace at all or I be thrown out moment-wise.† Gendibal reddened faintly. By Seldon, if he felt the need for Hamish amusement, it would not be in so open a fashion and his choice would have been made more selectively. He looked at the Trantorian woman with an inward shake of his head. She seemed quite young, younger perhaps than hard work had made her appear. She could not be more than twenty-five, at which age Hamishwomen were usually already married. She wore her dark hair in the braids that signified her to be unmarried – virginal, in fact – and he was not surprised. Her performance yesterday showed her to have enormous talent as a shrew and he doubted that a Hamishman could easily be found who would dare be yoked to her tongue and her ready fist. Nor was her appearance much of an attraction. Though she had gone to pains to make herself look presentable, her face was angular and plain, her hands red and knobby. What he could see of her figure seemed built for endurance rather than for grace. Her lower lip began to tremble under his scrutiny. He could sense her embarrassment and fright quite plainly and felt pity. She had, indeed, been of use to him yesterday and that was what counted. He said, in an attempt to be genial and soothing, â€Å"So you have come to see the – uh – Place of Scholars?† She opened her dark eyes wide (they were rather fine) and said, â€Å"Master, be not ired with me, but I come to be scowler own-self.† â€Å"You want to be a scholar?† Gendibal was thunderstruck. â€Å"My good woman†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He paused. How on Trantor could one explain to a completely unsophisticated farmwoman the level of intelligence, training, and mental stamina required to be what Trantorians called a â€Å"scowler†? But Sura Novi drove on fiercely. â€Å"I be a writer and a reader. I have read whole books to end and from beginning, too. And I have wish to be scowler. I do not wish to be farmer's wife. I be no person for farm. I will not wed farmer or have farmer children.† She lifted her head and said proudly, â€Å"I be asked. Many times. I always say, ‘Nay! Politely, but ‘Nay. â€Å"‘ Gendibal could see plainly enough that she was lying. She had not been asked, but he kept his face straight. He said, â€Å"What will you do with your life if you do not marry?† Novi brought her hand down on the table, palm flat. â€Å"I will be scowler. I not be farmwoman.† â€Å"What if I cannot make you a scholar?† â€Å"Then I be nothing and I wait to die. I be nothing in life if I be not a scowler.† For a moment there was the impulse to search her mind and find out the extent of her motivation. But it would be wrong to do so. A Speaker did not amuse one's self by rummaging through the helpless minds of others. There was a code to the science and technique of mental control – mentalics – as to other professions. Or there should be. (He was suddenly regretful he had struck out at the proctor.) He said, â€Å"Why not be a farmwoman, Novi?† With a little manipulation, he could make her content with that and manipulate some Hamish lout into being happy to marry her – and she to marry him. It would do no harm. It would be a kindness. – But it was against the law and thus unthinkable. She said, â€Å"I not be. A farmer is a clod. He works with earthlumps, and he becomes earth-lump. If I be farmwoman, I be earthlump, too. I will be timeless to read and write, and I will forget. My head,† she put her hand to her temple, â€Å"will grow sour and stale. No! A scowler be different. Thoughtful!† (She meant by the word, Gendibal noted, â€Å"intelligent† rather than â€Å"considerate.†) â€Å"A scowler,† she said, â€Å"live with books and with – with – I forget what they be name – said.† She made a gesture as though she were making some sort of vague manipulations that would have meant nothing to Gendibal – if he did not have her mind radiations to guide him. â€Å"Microfilms,† he said. â€Å"How do you know about microfilms?† â€Å"In books, I read of many things,† she said proudly. Gendibal could no longer fight off the desire to know more. This was an unusual Hamisher; he had never heard of one like this. The Hamish were never recruited, but if Novi were younger, say ten years old What a waste? He would not disturb her; he would not disturb her in the least, but of what use was it to be a Speaker if one could not observe unusual minds and learn from them? He said, â€Å"Novi, I want you to sit there for a moment. Be very quiet. Do not say anything. Do not think of saying anything. just think of falling asleep: Do you understand?† Her fright returned at once, â€Å"Why must ‘ do this, Master?† â€Å"Because I wish to think how you might become a scholar.† After all, no matter what she had read, there was no possible way in which she could know what being a â€Å"scholar† truly meant. It was therefore necessary to find out what she thought a scholar was. Very carefully and with infinite delicacy he probed her mind; sensing without actually touching-like placing one's hand on a polished metal surface without leaving fingerprints. To her a scholar was someone who always read books. She had not the slightest idea of why one read books. For herself to be a scholar – the picture in her mind was that of doing the labor she knew – fetching, carrying, cooking, cleaning, following orders – but on the University grounds where books were available and where she would have time to read them and, very vaguely, â€Å"to become learned.† What it amounted to was that she wanted to be a servant – his servant. Gendibal frowned. A Hamishwoman servant – and one who was plain, graceless, uneducated, barely literate. Unthinkable. He would simply have to divert her. There would have to be some way of adjusting her desires to make her content to be a farmwoman, some way that would leave no mark, some way about which even Delarmi could not complain. – Or had she been sent by Delarmi? Was all this a complicated plan to lure him into tampering with a Hamish mind, so that he might be caught and impeached? Ridiculous. He was in danger of growing paranoid. Somewhere in the simple tendrils of her uncomplicated mind, a trickle of mental current needed to be diverted. It would only take a tiny push. It was against the letter of the law, but it would do no harm and no one would ever notice. He paused. Back. Back. Back. Space! He had almost missed it! Was he the victim of an illusion? No! Now that his attention was drawn. to it, he could make it out clearly. There was the tiniest tendril disarrayed – an abnormal disarray. Yet it was so delicate, so ramification-free. Gendibal emerged from . her mind. He said gently, â€Å"Novi.† Her eyes focused. She said, â€Å"Yes, Master?† Gendibal said, â€Å"You may work with me. I will make you a scholar†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Joyfully, eyes blazing, she said, â€Å"Master†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He detected it at once. She was going to throw herself at his feet. He put his hands on her shoulders and held her tightly. â€Å"Don't move, Novi. Stay where you are. – Stay!† He might have been talking to a half-trained animal. When he could see the order had penetrated, he let her go. He was conscious of the hard muscles along her upper arms. He said, â€Å"If you are to be a scholar, you must behave like one. That means you will have to be always quiet, always soft-spoken, always doing what I tell you to do. And you must try to learn to talk as I do. You will also have to meet other scholars. Will you be afraid?† â€Å"I be not afeared – afraid, Master, if you be with me:† â€Å"I wilt be with you. But now, first – I must find you a room, arrange to have you assigned a lavatory, a place in the dining room, and clothes, too. You will have to wear clothes more suitable to a scholar, Novi.† â€Å"These be all I†¦Ã¢â‚¬  she began miserably. † â€Å"We will supply others.† Clearly he would have to get a woman to arrange for a new supply of clothing for Novi. He would also need someone to teach the Hamisher the rudiments of personal hygiene. After ail, though the clothes she wore were probably her best and though she had obviously spruced herself up, she still had a distinct odor that was faintly unpleasant. And he would have to make sure that the relationship between them was understood. It was always an open secret that the men (and women, too) of the Second Foundation made occasional forays among the Hamish for their pleasure. If there was no interference with Hamish minds in the process, no one dreamed of making a fuss about it. Gendibal himself had never indulged in this, and he liked to think it was because he felt no need for sex that might be coarser and more highly spiced than was available at the University. The women of the Second Foundation might be pallid in comparison to the Hamish, but they were clean and their skins were smooth. But even if the matter were misunderstood and there were sniggers at a Speaker who net only turned to the Hamish but brought one into his quarters, he would have to endure the embarrassment. As it stood, this farmwoman, Sura Novi, was his key to victory in the inevitable forthcoming duel with Speaker Delarmi and the rest of the Table. Gendibal did not see Novi again till after dinnertime, at which time she was brought to him by the woman to whom he had endlessly explained the situation – at least, the nonsexual character of the situation. She had understood – or, at least, did not dare show any indication of failure to understand, which was perhaps just as good. Novi stood before him now, bashful, proud, embarrassed, triumphant – all at once, in an incongruous mixture. He said, â€Å"You look very nice, Novi.† The clothes they had given her fit surprisingly well and there was no question that she did not look at all ludicrous. Had they pinched in her waist? Lifted her breasts? Or had that just been not particularly noticeable in her farmwoman clothing? Her buttocks were prominent, but not displeasingly so. Her face, of course, remained plain, but when the tan of outdoor life faded and she learned how to care for her complexion, it would not look downright ugly. By the Old Empire, that woman did think Novi was to be his mistress. She had tried to make her beautiful for him. And then he thought: Well, why not? Novi would have to face the Speaker's Table – and the more attractive she seemed, the more easily he would be able to get his point across. It was with this thought that the message from the First Speaker reached him. It had the kind of appropriateness that was common in a mentalic society. It was called, more or less informally, the â€Å"Coincidence Effect.† If you think vaguely of someone when someone is thinking vaguely of you, there is a mutual, escalating stimulation which in a matter of seconds makes the two thoughts sharp, decisive, and, to all appearances, simultaneous. It can be startling even to those who understand it intellectually, particularly if the preliminary vague thoughts were so dim – on one side or the other (or both) – as to have gone consciously unnoticed. â€Å"I can't be with you this evening, Novi,† said Gendibal. â€Å"I have scholar work to do. I will take you to your room. There will be some books there and you can practice your reading. I will show you how to use the signal if you need help with anything – and I will see you tomorrow.† Gendibal said politely, â€Å"First Speaker?† Shandess merely nodded. He looked dour and fully his age. He looked as though he were a man who did not drink, but who could use a stiff one. He said finally, â€Å"I ‘called' you†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"No messenger. I presumed from the direct ‘call' that it was important.† â€Å"It is. Your quarry – the First Foundationer – Trevize†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Yes?† â€Å"He is not coming to Trantor.† Gendibal did not look surprised. â€Å"Why should he? The information we received was that he was leaving with a professor of ancient history who was seeking Earth.† â€Å"Yes, the legendary Primal Planet. And that is why he should be coming to Trantor. After all, does the professor know where Earth is? Do you? Do I? Can we be sure it exists at all, or ever existed? Surely they would have to come to this Library to obtain the necessary information – if it were to be obtained anywhere. I have until this hour felt that the situation was not at crisis level – that the First Foundationer would come here and that we would, through him, learn what we need to know.† â€Å"Which would certainly be the reason he is not allowed to come here.† â€Å"But where is he going, then?† â€Å"We have not yet found out, I see.† The First Speaker said pettishly, â€Å"You seem calm about it.† Gendibal said, â€Å"I wonder if it is not better so. You want him to come to Trantor to keep him safe and use him as a source of information. Will he not, however, prove a source of more important information, involving others still more important than himself, if he goes where he wants to go and does what he wants to do – provided we do not lose sight of him?† â€Å"Not enough!† said the First Speaker. â€Å"you have persuaded me of the existence of this new enemy of ours and now I cannot rest.† â€Å"Worse, I have persuaded myself that we must secure Trevize or we have lost everything. I cannot rid myself of the feeling that he – and nothing else – is the key.† Gendibal said intensely, â€Å"Whatever happens, we will not lose, First Speaker. That would only have been possible, if these Anti-Mules, to use your phrase again, had continued to burrow beneath us unnoticed. But we know they are there now. We no longer work blind. At the next meeting of the Table, if we can work together, we shall begin the counterattack.† The First Speaker said, â€Å"It was not the matter of Trevize that had me send out the call to you. The subject came up first only because it seemed to me a personal defeat. I had misanalyzed that aspect of the situation. I was wrong to place personal pique above general policy and I apologize. There is something else.† â€Å"More serious, First Speaker?† â€Å"More serious, Speaker Gendibal.† The First Speaker sighed and drummed his fingers on the desk while Gendibal stood patiently before it and waited. The First Speaker finally said, in a mild way, as though that would ease the blow, â€Å"At an emergency meeting of the Table, initiated by Speaker Delarmi†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Without your consent, First Speaker?† â€Å"For what she wanted, she needed the consent of only three other Speakers, not including myself. At the emergency meeting that was then called, you were impeached, Speaker Gendibal. You have been accused as being unworthy of the post of Speaker and you must be tried. This is the first time in over three centuries that a bill of impeachment has been carried out against a Speaker†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Gendibal said, fighting to keep down any sign of anger, â€Å"Surely you did not vote for my impeachment yourself.† â€Å"I did not, but I was alone. The rest of the Table was unanimous and the vote was ten to one for impeachment. The requirement for impeachment, as you know, is eight votes including the First Speaker – or ten without him.† â€Å"But T was not present.† â€Å"You would not have been able to vote.† â€Å"I might have spoken in my defense.† â€Å"Not at that stage. The precedents are few, but clear. Your defense will be at the trial, which will come as soon as possible, naturally.† Gendibal bowed his head in thought. Then he said, â€Å"This does not concern me overmuch, First Speaker. Your initial instinct, I think, was right. The matter of Trevize takes precedence. May I suggest you delay the trial on that ground?† The First Speaker held up his hand. â€Å"I don't blame you for not understanding the situation, Speaker. Impeachment is so rare an event that I myself have been forced to look up the legal procedures involved. Nothing takes precedence. We are forced to move directly to the trial, postponing everything else.† Gendibal placed his fists on the desk and leaned toward the First Speaker. â€Å"You are not serious?† â€Å"It is the law.† â€Å"The law can't be allowed to stand in the way of a clear and present danger.† â€Å"To the Table, Speaker Gendibal, you are the clear and present danger. – No, listen to me! The law that is involved is based on the conviction that nothing can be more important than the possibility of corruption or the misuse of power on the part of a Speaker.† â€Å"But I am guilty of neither, First Speaker, and you knew it. This is a matter of a personal vendetta on the part of Speaker Delarmi. If there is misuse of power, it is on her part. My crime is that I have never labored to make myself popular – I admit that much – and I have paid too little attention to fools who are old enough to be senile but young enough to have power.† â€Å"Like myself, Speaker?† Gendibal sighed. â€Å"You see, I've done it again. I don't refer to you, First Speaker. – Very well, then, let us have an instant trial, then. Let us have it tomorrow. Better yet, tonight. Let us get it over with and then pass on to the matter of Trevize. We dare not wait.† The First Speaker said, â€Å"Speaker Gendibal. I don't think you understand the situation. We have had impeachments before – not many, just two. Neither of those resulted in a conviction. You, however, will be convicted! You will then no longer be a member of the Table and you will no longer have a say in public policy. You will not, in fact, even have a vote at the annual meeting of the Assembly.† â€Å"And you will not act to prevent that? â€Å"I cannot. I will be voted down unanimously. I will then lie forced to resign, which I think is what the Speakers would like to see. â€Å"And Delarmi will become First Speaker?† â€Å"That is certainly a strong possibility.† â€Å"But that must not be allowed to happen!† â€Å"Exactly! Which is why I will have to vote for your conviction.† Gendibal drew a deep breath. â€Å"I still demand an instant trial.† â€Å"You must have time to prepare your defense.† â€Å"What defense? They will listen to no defense. Instant trial!† â€Å"The Table must have time to prepare their case.† â€Å"They have no case and will want none. They have me convicted in their minds and will require nothing more. In fact, they would rather convict me tomorrow than the day after – and tonight rather than tomorrow. Put it to them.† The First Speaker rose to his feet. They faced each other across the desk. The First Speaker said, â€Å"Why are you in such a hurry?† â€Å"The matter of Trevize will not wait.† â€Å"Once you are convicted and I am rendered feeble in the face of a Table united against me, what will have been accomplished?† Gendibal said in an intense whisper, â€Å"Have no fears! Despite everything, I will not be convicted.†

Sunday, September 29, 2019

El Norte Essay

Gregory Nava’s El Norte debuted in the Telluride Film Festival in 1983 and presents the challenges and realities of migration and multiculturalism. Though the film’s settings are not consistent with today’s scenarios, it is still an important work because it provides and periodical anthology of the migrant issues as well as a background to today’s multicultural issues. A study of the film reveals not only the developments in the perceptions regarding immigration but also the development of niche cultural groups from the perspective of both original and adoptive societies. Moreover, El Norte suggests that cultural biases exist in various levels of society even in seemingly homogenous ones and that cultural disambiguation creates social vulnerabilities. Therefore, the movie can provide valuable insights on how multicultural psychology develops and changes in different settings. In turn, the insights that can be developed can help address the issues faced by the Xuncax family, particularly by the Rosa and Enrique in their quest to find their way and to establish a new life in the United States. In all three parts of the movie, cultural differences remain a dominant issue. Tackled closely with social issues, the film’s view is that culture is both a source of strength and a bane for the siblings. At the same time, the change in both Rosa and Enrique’s view of their experience and their prospects undergoes a metamorphosis that challenges them to find their place in the social schema. Immigrants or Refugees One of the major issues that are being explored in the movie is regarding the status of Rosa and Enrique as migrant or refugees. This issue is one that has become an interest in consideration of the political and economic persecution that became prevalent in autocratic and militarists governments in South America. Many countries, in the interest of controlling the influx of transnational established qualifications that can be considered as refugees, eligible for sanctuary and those that are to be considered as migrants. The general consensus seemed to be that political persecution was to be the basis for refugee status while migrants were associated with economic motivations. Furthermore, the status of immigrants requires legality where eligibility is based on an individual’s productive capacity. In the case of the main characters of the movie, they started out more as refugees. The circumstances that motivated them to leave Guatemala were because of persecution against indios their motivation was clearly not economic in nature. Rather, it was because of fear against threats against their life due to their ethnicity. At the same time, one classifies the siblings as refugees because they are not given the choice of staying or going back to Guatemala or to seek the protection of their government. However, they are not given this status but does not either fulfill the tenants of being considered as immigrants recognized by the United States. Considering these, Rosa and Enrique are to be considered as immigrants, however it should be noted that their lack of legal status makes such a classification problematic as well. In more contemporary terms, they are to be considered as illegal migrants, neither of their own country or the one they are currently in. Challenges and Implications It is understandable that there is reluctance to consider them as refugees since such a status, under the international charters, makes them eligible not only for residence in the United States but also makes them eligible for social assistance and placement. In contrast, immigrants are managed by the conditions of their migration or residence programs and there is greater leeway for their ejection when they are proven to be unproductive or detrimental to society. Thus, Rosa and Enrique can only turn to illegal means of entering the country as illustrated by their association with a â€Å"coyote† who smuggles them into the country. Though this bypasses the bureaucracy needed to gain both refugee and immigrant status, it also has left them vulnerable to abuse since they can not seek legal or judicial intervention if they need to. Furthermore, since they already entered the country illegally, the have burned their bridges in gaining legal recognition in the country. The siblings both offer perspectives on the institutions that migrants have to deal with. Rosa’s perspective is that their journey north has only led them from death to greater poverty and questioning if they have a place anywhere in the world except in death. Enrique reflects the sentiment that he is considered simply a factor of production, a â€Å"strong arm†, gaining no greater value than livestock or equipment. In either case, the siblings show that they see themselves apart from society, excluded by their circumstance and history. Acculturation Though the associates of the siblings are generally limited to their own community of migrants, this is not to suggest that they do not make an effort to become part of the general society. However, their efforts are often deterred by cultural and social preconceptions that box them into their roles as illegal immigrants. At the same time, they were being challenged to adjust to their roles within their won community as many of the racism they faced against their indigenous heritage in Guatemala persisted. The irony is that they heritage that they are being persecuted form is also the source of the philosophical perspective that give them the will to survive and bear the conditions and challenges of their journey north. The siblings peg all of their social interactions from their observations as well as each other’s perspectives. The issue of turning back from one’s cultural heritage is an underlying theme of the story since from the very beginning, perceived cultural inferiorities were the crux of the challenges faced by Rosa and Enrique’s family. Thus, within the socially excluded community they are categorized in by mainstream society they remain outsiders. It is then apparent from the observations and interactions of the siblings that their acculturation is always from and externalist’s perspective. Therefore, as Rosa and Enrique tried to adjust to their circumstance, there seems to be an acceptance that they will neither be able to be part of their community. Immigration Policies and El Norte The conjecture that the illegal immigrant trade is one that is protected and even encouraged is a perspective that is presented in the story. Illegal immigrants provide cheap labor, a blanket against social security requirements and a labor supply for jobs that are unwanted jobs. At the same time, immigrants are able to have livelihoods that allow them to subsist as they try to gain the tenure they need to apply for legitimacy. However, there is credence to Enrique’s sentiment that such a scenario has left them in a continued disadvantage. He points out that their situation has left them not only economically, socially or politically disadvantaged but also has made him question his worth as an individual and cultural heritage. The United States remains to be the preferred country for migration and there is still a great need for migrants particularly to sustain labor forces in jobs that are considered blue-collar in nature, However, the reality is that the country is already facing high unemployment among its citizens and there is a slow down of the economy. Thus, the need to control migration is also justified, if not necessary. At the same time, the persistence of ethnicity or culture as a bias still persists despite the establishment of political institutions that are to protect social diversity. The reality is that the issue is not so much regarding migration but the lack of viable opportunities and the inequitable distribution of wealth within nations and internationally.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Supply chain management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Supply chain management - Case Study Example The marketing area of Chemtech is primarily concerned with taking orders from the customer for their next month’s requirement. It then makes forecast and relays the same to the purchase department for timely delivery of the same. The department feels that lack of effective planning by supply chain management is responsible for the problems in meeting the customers’ demands. Answer 2 Chemtech needs to streamline its coordination between the departments and ensure that the logistic planning for at least three months is made in advance. This would give the suppliers more time to make arrangements for slow moving products as well as ensure availability of inventory that is often required at short notice. The company should also show more confidence on its long term suppliers and help understand their problems. Logistics and supply chain is vital part of business strategy and therefore concerted efforts for efficient receipt and delivery of goods and services need to be impl emented. Effective computerization of its various in house operations and functions would ensure smooth flow of information leading to improved performance outcome. The computerization would also help to forecast the products requirement so that it can maintain the inventory and meet the requirements of the customers at short notice. Answer 3 The suppliers like Potash should seek trust and at least three months time from its customers like Chemtech for delivery of products which are slow moving. The repeated threats of change in the suppliers by Chemtech have also significantly lowered the morale of Potash. As a result, the company has also started looking for fresh long term customers who could give them realistic time margin to meet their demands. The three months advance order would also enable the company to increase its stock of products which could be required by customers at short notice. While suppliers maintain large stock of products that are in high demand, the short supp ly of slow moving products often becomes huge liability for them. Hence, longer lead time for such products would facilitate the suppliers to coordinate its own logistics and supply chain. The linkages with external agencies are important part of logistics and supply chain management. Thus companies that are able to develop trust and mutual understanding would greatly benefit from long term relationship. (words: 500) Case study 15.1 Answer 1 There general challenges and issues

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Politics Community Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Politics Community - Assignment Example This interferes with the political structure of institutional development in the developing countries as these institutions still need support. Increased interdependence among countries has led to political interference among countries. For instance most of the developed countries’ political organization is determined by the donor countries. There is a tendency of the donor countries threatening to stop their donations if their beneficiaries support not their governance mechanism (Michaels, 2002). Foreign countries have also influenced the political operations of developing countries as they are required to adhere to certain requirements in order to maintain good relations with the former. For instance some countries have been required by the United States to send their troops to fight in countries grappling with political instability. This case has happened between Uganda and Somali whereby the Ugandan troops had to interfere with the political structure of Somalia. Countries have also interfered with each other’s politics due to resources endowment. For instance the action of the United States on the countries in the Middle East was greatly influenced by its interest in oil according to Michaels (2002). The United States has tried to legitimize its actions as well as redefine the doctrine of the Middle East countries.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Law and Ethics of Consent from Children in Medicine Essay

Law and Ethics of Consent from Children in Medicine - Essay Example In law children are those under 18 years of age. When ever providing consent for medical treatment, according to the age of the child there is a variance of treatment. The Family Reform Act of 1969 provides that, †the consent to treatment of a 16 or 17 year old is to be treated like the consent of an adult†( FRA 1969). Minors in some places are deemed incompetent and are not given the right to consent. In England, one can challenge the presumption of incompetence on the basis of proving that the minor is mature enough to understand the procedures and the outcome. However, whenever the minor is considered incompetent, the informed consent is required from the parents. This has no application to a refusal of medical treatment or to non-therapeutic procedures like organ or blood donation. For those children under 16 there is precedent in case law governing consent to treatment. The law was set out in the case of Gillick v West Norfolk and Wesbech AHA [1986] AC 112, the court held, â€Å"that if a minor has sufficient intelligence and understanding to enable him/her to understand the treatment and implications of treatment then he/ she is Gillick competent and can consent to treatment†( Gillick) The Human Rights Act 1998, which came fully into force on 2 October 2000, incorporates into UK law the bulk of the substantive rights set out in the European Convention on Human Rights: of particular relevance to this area Article 2, the right to life, Article 3,m the right not to be subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment, and Article 8, the right to respect for private and family life† (HRA 1998)

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Community profile report Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Community profile report - Literature review Example It has also been defined as â€Å"a comprehensive description of the needs of a population ...and the resources that exist within that community, carried out with the active involvement of the community itself...."(Hawtin and Percy-Smith, 2007 cited in Teater & Baldwin, 2009). According to CIA (2008) a community profile is a summary of the history, present conditions, and anticipated future of an area. Community profiles can also contain data about crime, transport, health status and community service available. Through information about attitudes, perceptions of community cultural and historical character, it is also possible to determine the strengths, current issues, barriers, or changes in the profile (Love, Boxelaar, O’Donnell & Francis, 2007). Neighbourhood is the vicinity in which people live; it is the immediate social and physical environment in which people dwell (Berk, 2002). It also describes a socially distinguished area depending on residents’ perception. In the neighbourhood people interact for utility such as grocery stores, schools recreational parks, medical clinics (Lebel, Pampalon & Villeneuve, 2007). They also support or provide mutual aid in addition to interacting for pure socialization, thereby creating bond between individuals. Neighbourhood is the space in which people move around carrying on with their social and economic activities. This built environment contributes to one’s identity. Neighbourhood gradually becomes a reflection of one’s self, one’s values and aspirations and of the socioeconomic conditions. Only one percent of the total population was aged over 85 years but 18.3% of the population was claiming some form of benefit which is above the city-wide figure of 17.3 percent (Public Health Plymouth, 2013). The claimants for jobseekers allowance (4.7%) was also above the city-wide figure of 3.8 percent. In addition, the mortality rate is higher and life expectancy

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Personal Development Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Personal Development Plan - Essay Example This personal development plan is intended to help me: To become more effective, confident and independent In identifying my strengths and weaknesses To improve my skills To develop a positive attitude towards learning SELF-ANALYSIS AND CRITICS From time to time I was provided with many different opportunities to develop my skills and abilities, which I did. If I compare my past and present self, I would definitely say that with the passage of time my performances, communication skills, research skills, and reading skills have greatly improved. Moreover, I can say that I have become a more professional individual than in the past. The key to my success has been teamwork and confidence. With both these factors on my side, I have a long way to go in the future. These skills have allowed me to be more friendly and interactive with others. With the radical improvement in my communication skills, I have been able to interact effectively with my group members and teachers during seminars a nd lectures. This communication skill has also helped me in dealing with different individuals throughout my educational career and has enabled me to share my views and opinions with others and to understand other’s perspective as well.   With continuous academic reading, I have also been able to improve my reading skills. In the past, I have some serious issues in reading but with a positive attitude to learn and gain more knowledge, I have to keep on reading articles, novels, newspapers, comic books, and researches and this has certainly helped me in improving my skills. Whenever I encountered a word that I was not aware of, I did not hesitate to ask others about it. This helped me a lot to improve my particular reading skills. The same I used to do with different concepts, I have never been afraid of asking from my colleagues or even my teachers. This has really helped me in making a better learner.  

Monday, September 23, 2019

The Future of Electronic Money ( case 1) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Future of Electronic Money ( case 1) - Essay Example There are many viewpoints on whether paper money should be completely eliminated. However, it would seem fair to suggest that paper money will still have a number of uses and it would be impractical to rely completely on electronic forms of money. This is because of the problems that are generally associated with information technology, such as power failures and database overloads, which could cause a break in the system and would therefore necessitate the use of paper money (Khilawala, 2011). It would be foolish to eradicate paper money completely whilst there is still a risk of these things happening. Paper money is also still popular with many. This is for a number of reasons. Firstly, if paper money were to be abolished, the government of that particular country would have to sell assets to ‘soak up the unwanted notes and coins’ (Rogoff, 2002, p2). It would mean a movement from the non-interest holding debt (cash) to interest holding debt (electronic money), which is an unappealing prospect for any government. The public also seem to have an insatiable demand for paper money, with the main reason for this popularity being the anonymity of cash. This is useful for those committing money-based crimes, but also appeals to the innocent as well for a number of different reasons. It has been suggested that when the government is able to identify the holders of cash using DNA techniques, electronic money may then become as popular as paper money (Rogoff, 2002). Conversely, this does mean that electronic money may be more useful for crime-detection. Despite this, there are a number of reasons why paper money is problematic. Governments may print off more paper money in anticipation of certain events as a way of controlling the economy (Jakobsson & Yung, 1996), but if this prediction is wrong then it may cause issues and as a

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Replacement and Cosntinuity Models Essay Example for Free

The Replacement and Cosntinuity Models Essay Paleonthropologists generally use the following 2 models to explain the origins of modern humans. The replacement model The continuity model   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Each of these models has its basis that could be traced back to hundred of years ago. The two models would be discussed explicitly with the use of examples for easy understanding. The Replacement Model   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This model was founded by Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews. They proposed that modern humans evolved from archaic Homo Sapiens 200,000 – 150,000 ( 2000 centuries ago) only in Africa and then some of them migrated into the rest of the world due to one reason or the other replacing all of the Neanderthals and other late archaic Homo Sapiens beginning around 1000 centuries ago. Since the interpretation of this fossil record is accepted by some people, it means all people today or modern humans share a relatively modern African ancestry which simply means we are all Africans. All other lines of humans that had descended from Homo erectus presumably became extinct.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As we can see, the regional anatomical differences that we can among humans today are recent growths evolving mostly in the last 400 centuries.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This hypothesis is also referred to as the Noah’s ark or African replacement model. The accepted view of the out of Africa model is that Africa exchanged genes with Eurasia, which shared genes with East and Southeast Asia and there are two evidences supporting the replacement model: the fossil record and DNA. So far, the earliest form of modern Homo sapiens skeletons came from Africa. This simply means that there are no homo sapiens existing today that would not be traced back to Africa.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Though John Relethford and other critics of the replacement model have had the greatest diversity in DNA simply because there were more people living in Africa during the last several years and this would lead us to the explanation of continuity or multi-regional model. The Continuity Model   Ã‚  This model was advocated by Milford Wolpoff, of the University of Michigan, he proposed that modern humans evolved more or less simultaneously or at the same time in all major regions of the old world from local archaic homo sapiens. Which means that homo erectus were available in all regions of the earth ever since inception. The hypothesis of this model states that modern homo sapiens had multiple origins from existing local populations. Each local population of archaic humans gave rise to a population of modern humans. This model was formulated around 1992 at University of Michigan. ( Turnbaugh, et. al# 323) . They advance their claim by stating that through gene flow, the archaic Homo sapiens gene was given greater variability thus enabling it to produce greater adaptations. By this process, they assume that we modern humans materialized.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   From a personal perspective, it is the continuity model that makes more sense. Because it claims that modern human came into existence through Homo erectus that was available in all region of the earth. This means that each region has its founding homo erectus.    Example I to support personal view   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Modern Chinese are seen as having evolved from Chinese archaic Homo sapiens and Homo erectus. This means that the Chinese and some other people in the world have great antiquity in place.    Example II to support personal view Indonesia/Australia   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Medley of cranial features is used to argue that modern aborigines are descended from Javanese Homo erectus. The traits that were familiar between the Javanese Homo erectus and the modern humans living in Indonesia and Australia regions include: Receding forehead Facial prognathism Source Jorgen Holm in   Human evolution

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The issue of ecology Essay Example for Free

The issue of ecology Essay The issue of ecology as a transnational issue has become highlighted with the intensification of world trade. As such, it becomes a global responsibility and a consideration in developing trade policies. As the primary governing body of international trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been one of the pioneers in equating environmental responsibility with trade (Deal, 2002). At the same time there, has been regional efforts to standardize environmental laws to mitigate the impact of development in shared environs as illustrated by the efforts of the European Union (EU), North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Sampson, 1998). One of the efforts made by the WTO is the development of the Kyoto Protocol which is aiming to mitigate environmental issue particularly global warming by establishing a trade system for emissions. However, there has been a difficulty in the implementation of the regulation because of varying views on the policies as well as difficulty in monitoring emissions. At the same time, there have been some issues regarding the institution of multilateral agreements that are contradicting or undermining the Kyoto Protocol or the status of most favored nations (MFN) (Brewer, 2004). Focus For WTO members, the use of energy tax adjustments could have significant implications. The issue raises difficult environmental, trade policy issues, economic issues. It also raise the internalization of environmental costs and the â€Å"polluter pays† principle, the effects on trade competitiveness and relationship between the multilateral environmental agreements and WTO agreements. The main issue that whether Article III: 2 first provisions of the 1994 GATT or the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade ponders the use of border tax adjustment (BTA) on â€Å"final† products for taxes on the manufacture of inputs. Albeit the decision in Superfund case, discussed in the latter of this section, the question will turn on a proper analysis of the taxes â€Å"applied, directly or indirectly, to â€Å"the like products to be compared, as opposed to the overall â€Å"fiscal burden† on producers from taxes on inputs. The Kyoto Protocol and the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade In December 1997, the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention was adopted. Under Kyoto Protocol, only Annex 1 countries are subject to legally binding emissions reduction commitments for the commitment period 2008-2012 in post-2000 scenario. Annex 1 parties or developed countries have to meet individual emission reduction targets listed in Annex B of the Protocol. Developing countries or non-Annex 1 parties are not subject to specific emission reduction commitments. Though over 120 countries have ratified the Protocol but the Protocol has yet to come into force. U. S. A and other developed countries have to date indicated an intention not to ratify the Protocol. Another contention is with regards to Article 1, II, VI and VII of the GATT and their potential implication with border tax adjustments. Further, energy tax adjustments may be challengeable under Article XXIII: 1 [b] of 1994. Finally, Panel approach to WTO-consistency will be governed by the reasonableness of the specific measure and its appreciation of the wider international implications. Energy tax adjustments as per Article III: 2 first sentences could offer potentially broad scope for countries to apply energy tax adjustments as disguised barriers to trade. Such results would do little to serve the objectives of either the WTO multilateral trading system or the international response to climatic change. Border Tax Adjustment Border Tax Adjustment [BTA] is a tax levied on imported products to adjust or compensate for taxes levied on domestic product. The main goal of BTA is to ensure trade neutrality of domestic taxation and thereby safeguarding competitive equality between imported and domestic goods. BTA is not necessarily levied at the border and imports may be taxed at the point of sale or consumption. Sales tax, consumption taxes or excise duties, value added taxes are examples of domestic taxes that might be subject to BTA. Likewise, a BTA on imported energy products such as imported natural gas or diesel fuel and other fossil fuels for domestic excise duties would fall within this group. Though the taxes on energy have been levied by governments for fiscal purpose for long time, now there has been a change in trend to levy â€Å"energy tax† mainly for â€Å"environmental† purpose. Energy tax is being levied on energy inputs such as coal ,electricity or gasoline which in turn calculated in value terms , or on the basis of its content of carbon of fossil fuels which is also known as â€Å"carbon taxes†. As of now, there exists no border tax adjustment scheme in place for taxes on energy inputs employed in the production of final products. However, European and other high energy taxing governments are contemplating to introduce such measures in near future due to the pressure exerted by environmental and industry groups. But there are increasing pressures from environmental groups to enforce strictly trade measures to enforce Kyoto Protocol objectives against non-signatories like United States. These environment groups regard the U. S. rejection of the Kyoto protocol is unfair as it places the European business at a disadvantage. They argue that Europe has the right to penalize the U. S goods for the pollution they cause under â€Å"Polluters pay â€Å"policy. Cases for Consideration A BTA can be applied on final goods or on inputs used in the production process. An example is the border tax adjustment on imports of aluminum’s for taxes on energy used in the production process as taxes are being levied on embodied energy in the final good that are adjusted, as opposed to taxes on the final goods itself. These measures are regarded as contentious with linkage to WTO trade and environmental debate. Albeit the Appellate body’s findings in the United States – Shrimp dispute, the exercise of trade measures applied on the basis of process and production methods (PPM) – in this case embodied taxes, carbon or energy –remains highly contentious. BTA for domestic taxes on energy inputs also raise significant equity and sovereignty concerns on the use of trade measures to inflict domestic environmental or taxation systems on other countries. Super Fund The case is against levy of superfund tax by U. S. A on petrochemicals and other chemicals and inputs when imported and sold in U. S and no tax is levied when it is exported out of U. S. U. S claimed that the aim of the tax was to compensate the cleaning up cost of hazardous waste sites and towards public health programs. When an importer fails to provide the details of input which he imported, then a penalty tax rate of 5 % was imposed. The GATT panel ruled that the tax on imported substance was a tax ‘directly imposed on products’ and hence eligible for border tax adjustments. The panel held the US super tax would be consistent with the Article III: 2 first sentence as long as it is equivalent to tax borne by the like domestic substances. The U. S direction to provide the information of inputs may make such information available to trade competitors and would have a real effect in discouraging trade. In this case, it appeared that neither the GATT Panel nor the parties sought to distinguish between the tax applied to the imported products, the like domestic products or the chemical products used in the production of the like domestic products. The Panel seemed to accept the US argument that the imported product and that the like domestic product was subject to the same â€Å"fiscal burden†.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Character Analysis Of Shakespeares Plays English Literature Essay

Character Analysis Of Shakespeares Plays English Literature Essay It is common knowledge that Shakespeares characters are very complex. A great number of Shakespeares protagonists are situated at the intersection of public and private, namely public life and private life. This is a statement which applies to most of his historical or tragic characters, especially those who oscillate between being a king and being a father, a son, a husband, a man. His history plays portray antithetical characteristic features and the inner turmoil which takes place due to the tension, the conflict between public and private life. Generally speaking, this is only the ideal of a king, because in most cases there is a strong symbiosis between the public and the private lives of a man, which can only highlight the conflicts between the two dimensions. A king has to deal with state affairs, but once he is a husband and a father, he also has to take into account his family. Vice versa, once a married man becomes king, he has to learn how to make the difference between his private and his public life without letting them interfering. Nevertheless, this is not always valid in all Shakespeares plays. To begin with, In King Lear, for example, the action of the play lays mainly in the sphere of family and portraits the relationship between parents and children. The main character of the play is Lear, an old king who decides that it would be better if he resigned and divided his kingdom among his three daughters. He is guilty of not making the difference between his public and his private life. Moreover, Lear is not only a father; he is also a monarch, which means he has both a public and a private life. In his private life, he has the right to become old and ill but, as a king, oldness and sickness must not affect his public persona. It appears that his familys problems interfere with the kingdoms ones since they involve the heirs of the country. Not knowing his daughters triggers problems to the kingdom. At the beginning of the play, it is revealed that Lear values appearances above reality and he is unable to distinguish them thus, in his public life, he has to deal with the consequences of his mistakes from his private life. He expects to hear flattery from his daughters even if what they say is nothing but a lie. Furthermore, he still wants to be treated as a king but he does not want to take full responsibility regarding the kingdom. Probably this happens because he wants to spend more time in his private life than in the public one. At the opening of the play, Lear considers public self more important than the private self, trying to do what is best for his kingdom, but without disregarding his family. What he wants is a peaceful kingdom in which his three daughters reign without battles, helping each other. As the reader progresses throughout the play, he discovers that, until the end, the importance of the two selves becomes reversed. When Lear is finally rejoined with Cordelia in a moment of privacy, he has no interest in his public life. There is a striking change of priorities in Lears life, a major contrast in Lear at the beginning of the play and Lear portrayed before his death. Secondly, a similar situation can be encountered in Hamlet. The homonymous character has to learn how to balance his two personas: the public one, the one of being prince and the private one, being the son. This character deepens so much in his obsession, in his private life, that he forgets about his public one. To him, it does not matter that he is the prince of Denmark and the future king, all that he wants is to prove his uncles culpability. Being obsessed with discovering and then revealing the truth, Hamlet is no longer interested in the aspects which are threatening the country, being concerned only with the problems in his family: the death of his father, his mothers immediate marriage. His private life is totally overwhelmed with his decision to unmask the culprit in such a way that he no longer treasures what he loves. He rejects Ophelia and treats her as if she meant nothing to him, hurting her and he accuses his mother of not being loyal to his father. Hamlet exposes his true feelings through his soliloquies in which the reader can cast a glance in his soul and discover his private thoughts. Hamlet feels disappointed because so much he loved and cherished his father, that he is unable to accept the fact that his mother actually remarried. He is a man who does not avoid to confront his own imperfections and who refuses illusions and fake ideals. His inner thoughts are in contradiction with his public actions. He is thoughtful and philosophical, thinking about life, afterlife, about his suicide, but when he has to act, he does it impulsively, hurting and disturbing the ones surrounding him. His plan of unmasking his uncle is constructed in a clever and allusive way. What results is the fact that Claudius feels unconformable at the sight of Hamlets innuendos and exposes himself by leaving the room. Thirdly, the theme of public and private lives also appears in Richard II. The major character enjoys kingship without really involving himself in the states affairs. Although, at the beginning of the play, he may look like a devoted king, he start losing his kingship when he feels threatened by Henrys army, ending with giving away his crown before dying. Shakespeare wrote more other plays in which this situation is dramatized, most of them having a tragic end. The reader will find the conflict between public and private lives in plays such Othello, Troilus and Cressida, Macbeth or Julius Caesar. Finally, being both a king and a man is not quite a simple matter. One must understand that being the king means representing the desires and wishes of the entire realm, the entire people, their wishes being more important than the kings since the monarch is the embodiment of his subjects. A king has to understand that the peoples problems are more important than his and that he must place his public life above his private self, his political persona being superior to the private one. A king must fully understand his position in the state. Not observing this rule may cause chaos to the kingdom, may conduct to him losing his crown. Characters such as Lear, Richard II or Hamlet do not understand their position and this causes problems to the kingdom.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing :: Education School Essays

Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing Throughout history people as well as animals have found ways to make life, as we know it simpler. With this ease comes a greater level of technology, which requires humans to once again adapt to this ever-changing society. In result, communication, understanding and knowledge plays key importance to how our society grows. Through trial and error we have learned how education works and the best method of teaching, but we still sometimes wonder what is the absolute best way. Teachers and students alike know the outmost importance of education. Everything from getting a job to being respected is based on your academic standing. The more accurate question has been what exactly should be learned? While noting the word success, an achievement of something intended or desired, I asked myself how much information is merely needed to survive in our society and how much is needed to be successful? I also sometimes ask myself how much of the information that I have learned is attained and used in my daily life. A new technological world is at large and you must uphold certain standards or you too will be left behind. I know that with the computer advancements that have been made in the last decade was nothing that my parents could have imagined in their wildest dreams. It's kind of unreal when you stop and take a look, but you must realize it is happening, the time is now and the best way to prosper is through education. I am a stern believer that education goes beyond high school. Not only does it apply to college but throughout life. As a child whose parents were unable to attend college I feel privileged with the opportunity. There was no question that I'd be enrolling in college after high school graduation. This experience will enable me to obtain the two things that I think are most important in my college career. That is to gain knowledge of the people and world around me, and become a critical thinker so that I am able to analyze any situation. The purpose of a college writing course to me is to help do both. I have realized that those are the two most important in that if you have the knowledge and thinking ability then you are open to learn. From elementary school forth I have practiced perfecting my English, as if it's not my native language.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Deception in the Stem-cell Research Debate :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

Deception in the Stem-cell Research Debate    The Nobel laureates' inaccurate letter to President Bush urging him to feed federal funds to human-embryo stem-cell research has had PR value in the media. It perpetuates a number of misconceptions and misleading statements regarding stem-cell research, particularly embryonic as opposed to adult stem-cell research, and will serve to continue to cloud the issue. Some of these deceptive statements are the subject of this essay. I believe President Bush and his staff are well aware of the truth about embryonic versus adult stem-cell research. Unfortunately, many in the public will read about this letter, recognize some high-profile "icons" or simply that there are a lot of "smart people" who've signed on, and think that they know all about this scientific research. Knowledgeable people do not always perpetuate the truth. President Bush and Congress obviously have the final say on how our federal research dollars will be spent. The hope is that all who are participating in this debate are fully informed about the facts and are not swayed by celebrities who are unfortunately ill-informed or deliberately misled, but rather weigh both the scientific and the ethical evidence. There is a lot of misinformation and deception going on in the press accounts of the stem-cell debate. This is probably the worst problem in this whole debate, the perpetuation (innocent or not) of misleading statements which obscure many of the real facts. The Nobel Laureate letter itself is a prime example of the "mixmaster" treatment of the facts. What is usually lacking from press reports are a few key "adjectives" that clarify the situation - defining whether the cells discussed are human or animal cells, and especially whether they are "embryonic" or "adult" stem cells. For example, the letter sent to President Bush says that "insulin-secreting cells have normalized blood glucose in diabetic mice." These experiments were done with ADULT stem cells from mice, NOT embryonic stem cells. In fact, there are as yet no reports of anyone being able to produce insulin-secreting cells from human embryonic stem cells, but human ADULT stem cells that secrete insulin HAVE been isolated. The letter promulgates the claim (made repeatedly in NIH documents) that adult stem cells do not have the same potential as embryonic stem cells, which in theory can form any tissue. But studies done with adult stem cells (studies which mirror the ones done with embryonic stem cells) DO show that adult stem cells have the capacity to form essentially any tissue.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Entertainment Essay

Present day entertainments are either good or bad or ugly. Advantages: good ones with pure fun, frolic, knowledge dissemination through various media keep us in good moods, healthy thoughts and entertained. Bad ones can be ignored by matured audience or readers but nonetheless, they leave a bad impression on our minds. The ugly ones are those that border on vulgarism like hard core porno entertainments, horror movies or badly worded books or comics. Disadvantages: All the above will be of great disadvantage if any form of entertainment is not used moderately and on a selective basis by those who seek fun and laughter. Any kind of entertainment, good or bad, will be bad for children who get addicted to any kind of habit, become couch potatoes and finally end up with obesity, lack of interest in studies and finally become a burden to the society. Portable entertainment devices, such as: Mp3 or DVD-players, which allow people to listen to music or watch films, are now commonplace. What do you think are the main advantages anddisadvantages of this development? Nowadays, products of hi-tech like a Mp3 or DVD-players become to be parts of the humans’ life. In my opinion, these technologies have merits and demerits. People use these modern techniques everywhere and any time because they are portable, compact and may contain a lot of info compared with diskets or tape recording. For example, we can take Mp3 or DVD-players with us during the travelling or going to somewhere. And these devices don’t claim more place than oldest. Moreover, we are able to record not only music or movies, but also educational programmes. These type of technologies have some opportunities. For instance, it can work without electricity and it is easy to handle. Besides, they have additional devices earphones in order not to distract other people. On the other hand, Mp3 or DVD-players have some drawbacks. I mean, they cause sometimes incidents (stray off the environmental around). As an example, while crossing the street or driving transport facilities, which even be reason for an accident. To sum up, I agree that today Mp3 or DVD-players play a great role in human’s life. And these easy movable techniques have both advantages and disadvantages. However, I think that there are more merits than demerits. Nowadays, hi-tech products such as Mp3 or DVD-players have become a part of the human life. In my opinion, these technologies have merits and demerits. People can use these modern techniques everywhere and at any time because they are portable, compact and contain a lot of information compared to older versions such as diskets or tape recorders. For example, we can take Mp3 or DVD-players with us while travelling . And these devices don’t require much space as required by older portable entertainment devices. On the other hand, Mp3 and DVD-players have some drawbacks. , they sometimes cause incidents (stray off the environmental around). For example, while crossing the street or driving transport facilities, what can be reason for an accident. To sum up, I agree that today Mp3 or DVD-players play a great role in human life. And these easy movable techniques have both advantages and disadvantages. However, I think that there are more merits than demerits (give an evidence) Nowadays, hi-tech products like Mp3 players or DVD-players have become common parts of human life. I made some changes. I also made it so that â€Å"human† is used as an adjective. It is not wrong the way you did it, but this change makes it sound nicer. You can always just say â€Å"going somewhere† and not going to somewhere. For example, we can take Mp3 or DVD-players with us during the travelling or going somewhere. As an example, while crossing the street or driving, these products may even become the causes of an accident. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet In the history of mankind, the Internet is the greatest development in the domain of communication industry. Similar to each and every invention, the Internet carries a number of advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, the advantages of the Internet are so huge in number that they outperform the disadvantages quite easily. What is Internet? According to the definition provided by Oxford dictionary, the Internet is an arrangement of connected computers, which lets the computer users all over the globe exchange data. At the present time, approximately 33% of the world population has accessibility to the Internet. The Internet is an extraordinary entertainment and learning tool that may be utilized in a number of modes to increase the ability of a user to collect information. The principal components of the Internet are the World Wide Web (WWW) and e-mail. With the passage of time, the Internet has become the most effective business tool in the contemporary world. It can be described as a global meeting place where people from every corner of the world can come simultaneously. The advantages of Internet Following are the advantages provided by the Internet: 1) Information The biggest benefit offered by the Internet is information. It functions as a valuable resource of information. You can find any type of information on any subject with the help of the search engines like Yahoo and Google. 2) Communication The primary goal of the Internet is communication. It has done extremely well in this field, however the development process is still going on to make it more dependable and quick. By sending an e-mail, we can contact a person who is physically present thousand miles away within the fraction of a second’s time. 3) Entertainment Internet functions as a popular medium of entertainment. A wide variety of entertainment including video games, music, movies, chat room, news and others can be accessed through the Internet. 4) E-commerce E-commerce is the idea that is implemented for any form of commercial strategy or business transactions that entails transmission of data from one corner of the world to another. E-commerce has become a fantastic option through which you can shop anything. 5) Formation of communities Internet helps in formation of communities or forums. Here a number of people can participate in different types of debates and discussions, express their views and gather valuable knowledge. 6) Services A variety of services are offered via Internet, for example job searching, online banking, buying movie tickets, hotel reservations and consultation services etc. When you avail these services offline, they become more expensive. The disadvantages of Internet Following are the disadvantages of Internet: 1) Spamming: Spamming denotes distribution of unsolicited e-mails in large numbers. They are meaningless and they unnecessarily block the whole system. These activities are treated as illegal. 2) Theft of personal details While using the Internet, there is high probability that your personal details like name, address and credit card number may be accessed by con artists and used for fraudulent purposes. 3) Pornography: Pornography is definitely harmful for your children. There are numerous pornographic sites available over the Internet and watching any of those can have very bad influence on the mental health of your children. 4) Virus threat Virus is a program that interrupts the usual operation of your personal computer system. PCs linked to the Internet have high probability of virus attacks and as a result of this your hard disk can crash, giving you a lot of trouble. Advantages and Disadvantages of Entertainment Units Entertainment devices are usually used in a room and they are big pieces of furniture, a TV, DVD player, game console, DVD and so on will stop. You need entertainment systems and keep them out of sight when not in use. For example, if you watch TV you must open the doors on the front panel. If you update your living room or TV room, consider buying a drag entertainment device. To help you decide, here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this type of element. Pro – there are so many different kinds of entertainment devices that have no trouble finding someone to be the style or theme of your room to be adjusted. For example, if you are looking for a modern design a single, high-gloss black or gloss white, clean and tidy appearance. Con – if you do not have much space in your living room furniture of this type can not be a good choice. Most entertainment units are quite large because they are intended, shelves, drawers, etc.. Although this represents a significant premium for many people a disadvantage when space is tight in your home. It is possible, but this kind of unity, which is slightly less to find, so if you have your heart set on a not abandon your search Pro – modern furniture, as it is more and more popular with people who want a clear look into her room to create. When televisions and other electrical equipment, as well as DVDs, etc. are just entertainment devices away for a very good choice for those who do not like the messy look, which sometimes can make these objects are stored. By the way, closed its doors a device like this and have a high quality furniture, in stead of TV stands, DVD racks and boxes of toys is a definite plus point. Con – it could be difficult for a device like this that come in a finish other than wood to get. For example, a glass, if you’re a fan of devices that you will not find one suitable. This is because these devices are designed to keep objects out of sight when not in use, and if any part of them were destroyed by the glass, this effect will be. As you can see there are various pros and cons of entertainment devices. But the drawbacks of these products are really on their size and the materials from which they were instead based their functionality or design. These devices are a good choice for anyone who wants their TV, DVD player, game console, etc. out of sight when not in use Advantages and disadvantages of entertainment online There are plenty of options available for entertainment online, particularly due to the onset of internet and the fast speeds which keep increasing these days. While it is reasonable for parents to be concerned about some aspects of this entertainment online, it is important to note that the internet offers plenty of choices that are both useful and knowledgeable for kids both young and old. For instance, toddlers can enjoy music and pictures online. However, for older kids, parental control is obviously always advised to limit the entertainment online to those selections which are appropriate for the kids’ ages. Like everything else, entertainment online has both advantages and disadvantages. The goal of all parents and guardians must be to use it for educational and appropriate entertainment purposes and have some control on the sites that the kids can browse. Not only will this help them to learn how to use the internet in a positive way, but it will also build healthier relationships between you and your kid. Internet will be inevitably used by your child as he or she grows. Instead of rejecting its use completely while they are still young, why not use them suitably and make them aware of what you approve? Studying, researching, school assignments all require google and other search engines. Therefore, showing your child the ways of the internet and how to locate information can be extremely useful for their future.

Monday, September 16, 2019

An Investigatory Study on Controlling Tardiness Essay

One of the problem of the students is being tardy, which is the quality or habit of not adhering to the correct or usual time or being late in going to school or in passing projects. This has been the most common reason for the students getting low grades at the end of the school year. Tardiness is not only the student’s obstacle, but for also with the teachers, whose main purpose is to serve as their second parents and their responsibility to change the behavior of this students. This can also be the reason on which students are forced to be absent once they are late already because they are afraid to be acknowledged in front of the whole class of their incorrect manner which can cause some students to drop out because of the shame they are feeling. see more:tardiness in school research The morning class is often times the most crucial time of the school day, students who are late may miss their first subject or may lead to the distraction once they arrive, some are also said to have lower grades and higher stress. Tardiness also causes students to feel disconnected from the social life and may change their behavior, and later on, they may deal with smoking, drinking and joining gangs just to prove to themselves that they are not alone. When a student is tardy, they negatively impact their teachers and other students. Teachers are often required to allow tardy students to make up work, which often requires them to restructure their lessons or reteach missed materials. While for the other students, it also take away their attention away from the teacher’s lesson, leading to more behavior problems and missed instructions. Student’s tardiness doesn’t just affect the people around them, but also in our nation. They contribute to the growing number of tardy students which greatly affect the status of our educational nature and nation. There is also that side of being tardy that must be solved directly- bullying, either they are the ones to bully or the one being bullied. Due to this reason and peer pressure, they intend to break rules either they may get this manner when they witness their parent’s fight or the worse is having a broken family. Based on the location of the University of Cebu Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue, those who live in Lapu-Lapu City will have some problems because of the heavy traffic everyday due to the intersections, while on the side of Mandaue City, expect no traffic. In the front of the school, the road is not blocked by the cars dropping the students because there is enough space at the back of the campus for parking. Tardiness does not only focus on being late in coming to school but also in passing projects or assignments. This topic is not new anymore, even for the star sections in every school, they still encounter this kind of problem. There are many reasons for this problem, but the most common is having a hectic schedule which maybe because of many projects, hard projects or simply being lazy. The greatest impact of being tardy in a student is depression and loss of interest in coming to school. That is why they don’t mind anymore about being late on which they are kicked out. When they are already out of school, they will just sit there and wait for their parents to give them money for food, which is not right. Once tardiness becomes one of your personality, you will be used to it until you go to work. With this attitude, you will be having difficulty in finding jobs which may cause you to be a beggar in the street. The core composition of this research is determining the main reason for students being tardy in school and what we can do in order to lessen the number of this case. The researchers got this idea from everyday experience, especially after flag ceremony on which many students are late. This study was created in order to help tardy students stop this attitude so that they will not cause bigger problem to themselves, the nation, and to the near future. After this study, the investigator will be able to determine the main cause of this problem and know what behavior, manner or tips should be taken up by students to lessen the case of tardy students. The researcher would also be able to know the main effect of this problem and how to avoid this habit by organizing a survey and more research.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Collective Consensus Theory Essay

Social norms can be defined as – The rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These rules may be explicit or implicit. Failure to stick to the rules can result in severe punishments, the most feared of which is exclusion from the group. A common rule is that the some norms must frequently be displayed; neutrality is seldom an option. Here I include other norms, which are as follows: a. ) Injunctive Norms – These are behaviors, which are perceived as being approved of by other people. b. ) Descriptive Norms – The perceptions of how other people are actually behaving and whether their behavior is accepted or not. c. ) Explicit Norms – written or spoken openly. d. ) Implicit Norms – not openly stated (but you find out when you trespass them). e. ) Subjective Norms – How we will behave with others who valued us. f. ) Personal Norms – Knowing our standards about our own actions. By exploring social norms and inequalities, let me be more specific, about the Americans – Inequalities in American society have become so institutionalized that we rarely recognize most of them on a daily basis. Some are glaringly obvious: the privileges of the elite, the boss’ ability to come and go as he pleases- but these inequalities are sustaining, obvious, and don’t hurt as much because we are conditioned to accept them†¦ Some inequalities change as certain circumstances change. The type of social stratification I wish to discuss is ever changing, we’ve all experienced it, but have we all noticed it? We like to think we live in a classless, multicultural society where everyone is treated equally. Frankly we are deluded. Of course there are classes, and not everyone is treated equally. The classes in our world are based on race, ethnicity, education and politics. Of the phenomenons of social stratification is social inequality, which is the distribution of resources dividing society into rank, grades, family, religion and education. These divisions should not occur in our society, but it is the sad truth that it does. Ethnicity is different to race as ethnicity is a distinct cultural definition which people identify with as customs, family patterns and religion. The sociologist, Max Weber, defines ethnic groups as â€Å"human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent because of physical type or of customs or of both or because of memories of colonialisation or migration†. The biggest problem that arises in race and ethnic relations is prejudice, which is born out of pre-judgment and lack of knowledge. The Sociological causes of prejudice are: 1. It draws together people who share it; superiority is important. This is an element of Emile Durkheim’s Collective Consensus Theory. 2. Competing for resources. It is easier to get things if you can write others off as less deserving. 3. We can project onto others, who we think are lesser than us, those parts of ourselves that we don’t like. The prejudices against those we think are ‘different’ have negative consequences such as limiting our vision of the world. But far worse is its effect on society; it leads to discrimination and the consequence of discrimination is inequality. For Karl Marx, inequality was seen as a dichotomy based on the relations of production and the concept of class is the basic indicator of inequality. Weber saw inequality as three abstracted mechanisms of power; class (economic power), status (social prestige power) and party (political power). Whichever way it is described, inequality is found everywhere, between class, in education, health, occupations and power and within classes with sex, age, ethnicity and religion. However, there is hope in the end, for people can be socially mobile, which is the movement of people between social classes. Society’s idea is that if you work hard enough you will move up in society, but this is not always true. People can move downwards in the social scale, or may start on the bottom and stay there because they do not have the same access to education as others may have. These people have less opportunities than others yet they are looked down upon because they are not upwardly mobile. How can people move up socially if they are not on an equal playing field to begin with? As long as people continue acting the way they do, inequality and racism will exist. Education is the key, and while older people may be set in their ways and may not be willing to change their views, we must educate the children, who are are future. Children must be taught that all people are equal and that thinking otherwise is wrong. For it is wrong. We were all created equal. Man made us not so. As per my view, when we live in a society were abiding by social, personal, or subjective norms, which are laid out for social and societal living is of utmost significance; I tend to stick to those norms and also inculcate the same things to people who are not aware of them. Man is a social animal, who needs to be trained to adapt different changes in societal environment. He has to abide by the norms laid out by the society to be accepted socially and morally, or else he/she is treated as a aborigine or uncivilized.