Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Lidiah Zipp College English Research Paper Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theories in Relation to Brave New World One might imagine, what could truly constitute Ã¢â¬Å"A brave new world?Ã¢â¬ What parameters must that world fall within? What decisive mind is manning the ship headed toward this utopia? Certainly, this world has seen innumerous attempts, heard the many strident voices, which barreled forth and propelled society toward that image. One of those voices belonged to Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, and even, perhaps, a deity of this brave new world. Sigmund Freud was born May 6th, 1856, in Frieberg, Moravia to a textile dealer named Jacob Freud (Chiriac, Ã¢â¬Å"Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s ChildhoodÃ¢â¬ ). He was one of eight children, five sisters and threeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Those intentions being comprised morals and a sort of HumanÃ¢â¬â¢s Code and Conduct. In short, the Id exhibits the basic drive for survival of a human being, while the Ego aims to satisfy that drive in a realistic way, and the Super-ego aims for perfection (Mcleod). FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work and study in psychoanalysis carries into the next point. Fixation, which according to Merriam WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary, as it relates to psychology, means Ã¢â¬Å"the arresting of part of the libido at an immature stage, causing an obsessive attachment,Ã¢â¬ (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary). If a person becomes fixated at any point, Freud denotes that bad habits collected and cultivated at this time will indisputably lead to greater issues in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s a dult life. It is in this that one may observe the notion that a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to affect and damage their children is a lifelong endeavor that does not end with the passing of an eighteenth birthday (Thornton). Of course, that insidious business of book burning to must be elaborated on. Perhaps, it is not so much the burning of those books, but the cause for the burning that is to be accounted for. Freud was at the center of much speculation and controversy in his time and, in some cases, he continues to be today. Some of the greatest controversy is introduced via FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent fascination with human sexuality. In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s time period, the taboo of sex was far greater andShow MoreRelatedThe Conscious Is At Target1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTarget Brave New World, an eye opening novel for our times. The importance of human conscious is essential to keep our freedom. As Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ Aldous Huxley novel a great work which brought every reader to ask to oneself if it will be possible to have that world in our proximity. The novel is so real that you can almost agree that in this writing Huxley had a prediction. His novel in my point of view can differ from many other critiques and I believe it goes hand in hand with Freud Sigmund theoryRead MoreThe Evil That Lies Within1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdependent on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal aspects and may be seen as immoral to one person, but sufficient to another. There are various views on why people are malevolent. Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Sigmund Freud help prove how vileness can exist from within, or just exist out in the world. Evil is not something that can be avoided (it lingers throughout a civilization) it may be taught or it may merely arise from the unconscious mind. There are numerous divergent ways to view the conceptRead MoreAnalysis Of Margaret Atwood s The Handmaid s Tale Essay1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesshaped and influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud. He developed theories concerning Ã¢â¬Å"the workings of the human psyche, its formations, its organization, and its maladiesÃ¢â¬ that, while further refined by other theorists, are still the basis of the modern approach to literary criticism (Dobie 54). FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the tripartite psyche is used to classify and define the conscious and unconscious mind into the id, ego, and superego. When examined using this theory, Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s TaleRead More Kurt Vonnegut Jr.s Cats Cradle Essay3320 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesKurt Vonnegut Jr.s Cats Cradle In the early sixties, Kurt Vonnegut Jr. released his candidly fantastical novel, Cats Cradle. Within the text an entire religious sect, called Bokononism is born; a religion built on lies, absurdity, and irony. The narrator of Cats Cradle is Jonah, a freelance writer who characterizes Bokononism as being, free form as an amoeba (Vonnegut, Cats Cradle, 3). It is boundless and unpredictable as the unconscious itself. Bokonon lives on the impoverished islandRead MoreEssay on Indecision, Hesitation and Delay in Shakespeares Hamlet1964 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespoisoned father, troubled by the stench of a kingdom in decline, outraged by his queen mothers incestuous liaison, why did Hamlet wait so long to act decisively?Ã Theories abound. Hamlet had an Oedipus complex. Hamlet was mad rather than merely pretending to be. Hamlet was an intellectual pansy. Hamlet was an existentialist. Etc. T. S. Eliot went so far as to say that the play itself was flawed, Hamlets Problem actually the authors own, insoluble.Ã I believe that the Problem is actually ours. PerhapsRead MoreSolar Panel Of Solar Panels4116 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesis called solar panel electricity systems, also known as solar photovoltaics, capture the sun s energy using photovoltaic cells. These cells do not need direct sunlight to work, they can still generate some electricity on a cloudy day. The cells convert the sunlight into electricity, which can be used to run household appliances and lighting (energy saving trust, 2014). At the beginning of solar panel s carry out, it is not known to many people who are used to the traditional way of electricity supplementRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pages. Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of workRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 PagesExplanation ................................................................................................ 438 Induction from the General to the Specific ................................................................................. 438 How New Information Affects an ArgumentÃ¢â¬â¢s Strength ............................................................. 439 Statistics and Probability ...............................................................................................................Read MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 PagesProfessor of Business Administration The Business School Loughborough University and Colin Gilligan Professor of Marketing Sheffield Hallam University and Visiting Professor, Northumbria University AMSTERDAM Ã¢â¬ ¢ BOSTON Ã¢â¬ ¢ HEIDELBERG Ã¢â¬ ¢ LONDON Ã¢â¬ ¢ NEW YORK Ã¢â¬ ¢ OXFORD PARIS Ã¢â¬ ¢ SAN DIEGO Ã¢â¬ ¢ SAN FRANCISCO Ã¢â¬ ¢ SINGAPORE Ã¢â¬ ¢ SYDNEY Ã¢â¬ ¢ TOKYO Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First published 1992 Second edition 1997 Reprinted 1998
Monday, December 16, 2019
Daniel Cha English T/TR 7am 27 Febuarany 2013 Essay 1 RapÃ¢â¬â¢s Opposing views When it comes to defining rap music, some define it as poetry in the form of music. Even though rap music is thought of as a form of art, it is highly debated as a controversial social issue. Author Ã Sid Kirchheimer from Ã¢â¬ Does rap put teens at riskÃ¢â¬ makes a claim that rap music is a detriment to our youth. We will write a custom essay sample on Rap Music or any similar topic only for you Order Now He believes that negative behaviors is the outcome of people watching and listening to rap music. Author Curtis Aron from Ã¢â¬Å"Rap Music: Is It As Bad As Some People Think? Thinks otherwise and claims that rap music is looked at as a whole and is greatly misunderstood. Aron explains that the genre of rap music is blanketed by its popular view of being a negative influence and is being greatly misunderstood. Using the Toulmin model of argument, both arguments offer very good reasons why their arguments provide persuasive evidence about the different perspectives of rap music. KirchheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s warrant is, that initially rap music automatically leaves a bad tastes in peoples mouth. KirchheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s view on rap is that because teens watch so much television they are exposed to what he calls Ã¢â¬Å"reel life of a gangsta. By watching these rap videos, they are more likely to practice the behaviors they see off their favorite rap artists or rap music video. He claims that becaus e of long hours of exposure to rap music teenagers are starting to behave like what they see on television. His grounds offer truths because his claim of watching rap videos is backed with statistically data. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"Researchers found that compared to those who never or rarely watched these videos, the girls who viewed these gangsta videos for at least 14 hours per week were far more likely to practice numerous destructive behaviors. Over the course of the one-year study, they were three times more likely to hit a teacher, over 2. 5 times more likely to get arrested, twice as likely to have multiple sexual partners and 1. 5 times more likely to get a sexually transmitted disease, useÃ drugs, or drink alcohol. Ã¢â¬Å"Rap initially does leave a bad taste in people mouths, the quote provides statistical evidence that supports why people should and would despise it. Aron, with his own warrant states, that genre of rap music is blanketed by its popular view of being a negative influence. Aron says that Ã¢â¬Å"Rap music has long had a reputation of being a form of music that represents violence, sexual exploitation and excess. The genre has been criticized in the media, associated with some of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s social ill and seen by a good number of people as bad on citizens in general. Ã¢â¬ He first goes against his own viewpoints to prove that he understands the issue. He provides a counterargument to prove he is a reliable source about how rap can be seen as a social ill. AronÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the Toulmin argument continues as he offers his rebuttal and backing by saying, not all rap music is bad music. Aron states, Ã¢â¬Å"There is some rap music that is created with the intention of sending a positive message to its audience. There are songs that denounce violence and call for more peace and togetherness in the inner city in an attempt to improve the quality of life. Ã¢â¬ Some truth that the author stresses is how there is positive rap and it can serve as a purpose of improving social consciousness. An example rap group he uses to provide evidence to his backing is a group named Ã¢â¬Å"The East Coast AllStars. Ã¢â¬ He supports this group because it adds qualification that not all rap music is bad music. But most importantly because the group understands that music is highly influential, so they really push and write songs that gives positive influence to these communities that are being run by violence, sex, and drug exploitations. Kirchheimer also reveals that he understands both sides of the subject by stating a counterargument of his own. He says that, Ã¢â¬Å"Parents need to know what their children are being exposed to. Certainly, rap is not the only music that portrays negative stereotypes or can negatively impact behaviors, and not all rap music should be implicated. But there have been nearly 1,000 studies that have looked at the effects. Ã¢â¬ Kirchheimer shows a weak side by admitting that not all rap music should be implicated. He is rationale and does admit that all rap music is not the case. How he collects himself is by telling readers to be aware that the studies about the effects are true. He also uses emotional evidence by explaining that parents especially should be aware of what their children are watching and listening too. AronÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to Kirchheimer response is that he recognizes that people are so influenced by rap music. People especially children see these rappers and replicate their behaviors. Curtis Aron spills one huge secret that most of the things rappers and artist say they do are bias. Aron writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Many times, the rap artist is creating a fictionalized account of certain events for the purpose of intriguing and entertaining people and sometimes uses characters to facilitate those accountsÃ¢â¬ ¦ This is no different from other forms of entertainment, in particular, the movie industry. When our favorite actor portrays a gun toting, drug using, highly sexual character in a movie, it is not seen as degenerate. He gives a broader and new perspective on how people should view these fictional characters. Rappers are much like fictional characters from movies. He explains that the things they do such as gun toting, drug using, and sexual innuendos are all for the purpose of intriguing and entertaining people. In the highly debated argument of rap music being a controversial issue, both Kirchh eimer and Aron are identifying themselves as a scholarly source about the subject of rap music. Both understand and access reliable information to be used as a notable source. Through the Toulmin model argument, both Sid Kirchheimer and Curtis Aron provide great strengths and explore the topic of rap to educate readers about their views. Kirchheimer states, that initially rap music automatically leaves a bad tastes in peoples mouth and provides good warrants and evidence to back his view. However, Aron proves that his argument is stronger as he educates that the readers that his warrant, the genre of rap music is blanketed by its popular view of being a negative influence. He gives evidence of both for and against the issue and expands over KirchheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. How to cite Rap Music, Papers
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Fair Value Accounting and Financial Analysts. Answer: Introduction Just as discussed by Khan (2012), the occurrences of expressions liketrue and correct or what scholars refer to as true and fair date back from 1844. It was the time when the Joint Stock Companies Act in the UK indicated that the principals of companies would balance the companies books in full and fair balance sheets. However, in 1956, this clause was excluded from the bill. The directors who adopted the regulations were therefore expected to come up with actual accounts which were to be filed using the double entry concept. Companies became more complicated and involved in the society as they grew, and so were the managers expected to remain answerable for the increasing number of concerns within their respective companies (Lee Azham 2012, p. 12). He points out that since the financial report was moving from stewardship to decision usefulness function, evaluation of performance, it was paramount to have the auditors opinion because it was from the accountability report that the ma nagement of an organization could make investment reports. He says that this is where TFV principle came in; a term that auditors have been using more often to express their opinion. This manuscript sets the pace to provide a framework from which to evaluate the notion of TFV; it makes analyses of what the term means in the business world and of course, ways in which the idea can be applied by various countries around the globe to improve financial reporting by their respective organizations significantly. The major focus of this paper will, therefore, be to try to unearth the history of TFV, its origin, and what has been its historical purpose. Moreover, the second section of this article will also look at the extent to which the Australian regulatory environment for financial reporting supports the concept of TFV. According to Holman (2013), until in the 19th C, managers were expected to show accountability reports for auditing but since there was a need to improve transparency regarding the financial reports in the organizations, the term true and fair view was coined in 1848 by the UK Joint Companies Act. Since then the term has acquired legality especially in the 20th C and further achieved a new definition concerning corporate accountability. Bachert (2012) explains this further by pointing out that organizations always entrusted their resources to their managers who were expected to produce both qualitative and quantitative reports regarding resource utilization. The decision making authority which had got the duty of accountability had to prove beyond any reasonable doubt how efficiently it managed the funds entrusted to it. This need for accountability arose in both the public and private sectors whenever stewards got the duty of managing the resources of others. As a result of lack of trust, the principal had to hire a professional to assess the reports tabled by the managers; therefore to verify the efficiency of the steward, the quality of accounts produced was verified. It is because of this that a mechanism to accomplish such task in a more transparent manner was thought of to be necessary; an act that must have started a thousand years ago thereby making TFV only but an improvement on the traditional auditing procedures. It was evident that legit papers and practices depended heavily on antecedents; therefore it was possible that there could be an equal use of terms like 'true,' 'fair' and correct in the 19th C(Lee Azham 2012, p. 12). Before they could act on the evidence, one or two words in the overall setting, the continued interpersonal conduct relations had to be found on mutual understanding. For example, the first clauses of the agreements in partnership showed 'casual friendship between partners; confidence that they placed in the integrity and fidelity of each other. Escaffre (2013) notes that the concept of TFV had been major requirements for the companies law since 1947 in the UK. The British accountants, therefore, found it to be very central in accounting hence a fundamental characteristic in auditing. Since then, the idea spread to most former colonies of Britain notably Australia and New Zealand and recently, across the countries under the European Communities. In spite of all these, the TFV concept has received any legal definition from neither a court nor a body of accounting. On the other hand, the real message has been that those countries that have embraced the idea continue selling the idea not just because of its practicality but also because of the portrayal of fairness in its presentation. With the rise of creative accounting in the recent past; where managers use accounting to mislead in the financial reports rather than help the principal, many more countries and organizations are likely to adopt the TFV system (Veron 2013, p. ). The author says that there could be times when one of the partners more knowledgeable and powerful, thereby placing him in a more favorable position than his associates to influence the activities of the association and even discard the unions property. The partners would, therefore, come to terms with keeping records and accounts in forms available to the members. A periodic auditing and settlement of personal interests amongst the members of the union. The fundamental reason behind this wasnt just to earn the trustworthiness of partners for the execution of powers of the association, but also to cement the confidence and good intentions that the union survived. At a level more transient, the regulations which governed the quality standards and those that forgery was among the most visible host of laws derived from securing promising and continued business amongst partners mightier and those whose influence is relatively less (Lee Azham 2012, p. 12). The statute then made and aut horized the arrangements and the partners bound by the nonpublic agreement that illustrated the measures and understandings by which delicate dealings with each one of them was to be secured. With the continued infiltration of evil in accountancy, in the 19thC, leading UK practitioners advocated for the implementation of TFV concept to put to a halt such creative devices like off-balance sheet financing. Salehi (2012) points out that TFV overtook the Substance Over Form approach which used to be the most popular concept in the late 18thC and early 19thC. An institution of chartered accounts England and Wales argued that it was vague,' personalized,' jeopardizing and obverse to the regulations. TFV has however received commendable acknowledgment since then because unlike the Substance Over Form Approach; it does not only comply with the companies law and standards but also make sure that their financial reports reflect the TFV of the audit reports. Veron (2013) notes that TFV being a philosophical concept isnt prone to definition by a compilation of laws thereby giving it some essential features, moreover, TFV possess all the required ethics and morality. We can, therefore , make an assumption that those using the financial reports always have a universal objective hence alternative accounting procedures which the managers present have to go through the auditors and finally through the shareholders for matters of consensus as to what is fair. Veron (2013) justifies all these by using an analogy of a magic formula stored in a container and has to be removed under some particular conditions, not only to retain the memory but also to help in handling the prevailing situation. He makes an observation that TFV is just like inquiring from a motorist how frequent he/she drives and applies the traffic rules. To him, TFV is a concept that is ingrained in accountancy and therefore it is something that all accountants and auditors must always hold in common but not make it a matter of discussion. Salisu (2013) also observes that TFV should only mean total compliance to the principles of accounting that are acceptable and provided in the UK accounting methods regulation. It is in line with the USA situation whereby the auditing reports have to conform to the guidelines that are accepted, no wonder; the suggestion by the American Institute of Public Accountancy to erase the term somewhat was rebuked, debated and finally withdrawn in 1 982. Hasyudeen (2013) also points out that the relevance of the financial statements tabled by the managers is not just on the companys structure buts also on the composition of the shareholdings. Therefore as much as different companies may have different methods of interpreting compliance, the composition of the shareholders and of course the size of the company might be of great importance in this connection. Thus, it is very clear that this concept only began as a theory but has since been embraced from all corners of the world. It has been possible because its of practicality and applicability in the ever-growing business community. The Australian Regulatory Environment for Financial Reporting (AREFR) has been seen to support the TFV. It is according to Lee (2013) which argues that from the period of 1993-2009, the Australian Regulatory Environment for financial reporting became more conservative. However, he points out that this kind conservatism in the Australian financial reporting has been inconsistent as opposed to the situation in the USA and other European countries. Its support for TFV has dwindled without an apparent reason over the past two decades. In his book, he argues that with the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IRFS), the enactment of TFV has decreased. This paper, therefore, exemplifies the extent to which the AREFR has embraced TFV. Salehi (2013) in his work tries to make a distinction between the common-law and code-law countries with the difference being in the manner of resolving information between managers, investors, suppliers, and customers. Corporate governance is often conducted by appointed agents whereas, in the common-law countries, there is a shareholder form of corporate governance. The shareholder, therefore, appoints professionals to monitor the activities of the corporate managers on their behalf. Many scholarly works have suggested that every era which requires conformity to TFV tends to interpret and address the concept about some particular political, historical, economic roots plus environments thus; the concept has been defined as transnational formulae of disharmony (Lee Azham 2012, p. 12). However, this kind of discord should not be restricted to the cultures of particular races, ethnicities, and nationalities therefore if terminologies like TFV have different meanings for varied partake rs in financial auditing, there may be an occurrence of an expectation vacuum. He defines the gap as the distinctness between the anticipation that users of the financial audit have concerning the financial auditing personnel who prepare the reports. Bachert (2012) gives a vivid description of the notion as a breach between what accounts audit statements mean and that which many non-auditors think is true. He states that most financial reports in the USA give the financial position of countries and the liabilities noted in the income. Contrary to this, the Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principle (AGAAP) requires less frequently, a clean surplus. This distinction is said to have been more evident before Australia adopted the IRFS. Hasyudeen (2013) notes that around 10% of the top 500 companies in Australia combines the roles of the Chief Executive Officers with those of Board chairpersons. In addition to this, the shareholders influence in the Australian market is greater than in the USA in various aspects. For instance, the Australian shareholders appoint their directors and most interestingly, hold annual voting forums in their companies remuneration reports. According to Willison (2012), this has provided an avenue for shareholders activism thereby fostering more active, efficient and productive engagement between the shareholders and the board members. Khan (2012) on the other hand notes that the statutory tax rates for companies in both the USA and Australia stand at 39% and 30% respectively whereas those multinational corporations are 22% for Australia and 28% for the USA. These statistics hence warrant an investigation into the extent at which AREFR applies the idea of TFV. Magnan (2012) argues that the regulation of corporate governance and financial reporting since 2000 is likely to change the need for TFV in Australia thereby even altering the degree of conservatism in future. He says a lot of studies show that the application of TFV is more prevalent in the Australian financial reporting landscape where they use it in the Loss firms. However, the companies that have adopted the system approve of it; reduces the managerial ex-ante to take on the negative net value projects hence improving the ex-post monitoring of the companies investments. Since TFV has no legislative definition, the task of determining the legal meaning and its application is therefore for the jury to decide. However, the stance of many critiques is that TFV is such a nebulous concept for the court to give a thereof. It is because the jury will likely determine its meaning according to its practice which in any case, will be decided by expert accountants. Conclusion Creative accounting being a growing issue of interest in the business arena, it though that the concept of TFV depending on its interpretation can limit it. In Australia for example, creative accounting is considered one of the major concerns in the accounting profession. From the literature analysis above, it is evident that their work signals a warning that TFV might not be an absolute recommendation to the Australians problems depending on its interpretation. It is hence worth arguing that TFV boosts the opportunity for accounting policy choice and relaxes the traditional rigidity of accounting profession; moreover, it gives companies the right to claim to apply their discretion than accept authority from professional accounting organizations. Therefore the choice of how to interpret and implement this idea is crucial for the future credibility of the accounting profession in Australia. List of References Bachert, K. Kajter, P, 2012, Fair Value Accounting and Financial Analysts Forecast Accuracy: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries. Istanbul, 33rd Annual Congress of the European Accounting Association. Escaffre, L, Foulquier, P, Touron, P, 2012, The Fair Value Controversy: Ignoring the Real Issue. Lille Nice, November 25, 2008, [on-line], https://www.edhec-risk.com/features/ RISKArticle.2008-11-25.0644/attachments/EDHEC%20Position%20Paper%20Fair%20Value.pdf. Hasyudeen, N, 2013, Audit profession-Global Development and Key issues. Retrieved from Http:www.slideshare.net on 11/04/2016 Holman, R, 2013, The Czech Financial Sector Remains Stable Even at a Time of Recession. Czech National Bank, [on-line], https://www.cnb.cz/en/public/media_service/interviews/cl_100520.html. Khan, U, 2012, The Economic Consequences of Relaxing Fair Value Accounting and Impairment Rules on Banks during the Financial Crisis of 2008-2009. Istanbul, 33rd Annual Congress of the European Accounting Association. Lee, T. Azham, M. A, 2013, The evolution of auditing: An analysis of the historical development. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 4 (12) Magnan, M. (2012), Fair Value Accounting and the Financial Crisis: Messenger or Contributor? CIRANO: Scientifi c Series. Salehi, M. (2013).Audit expectation gap: Concept, nature and trace.African Journal of Business Management. 5(21), 8376-8392. Veron, N, 2013, Fair Value Accounting Is the Wrong Scapegoat for this Crisis. Bruegel Policy Contribution, April 2017, [on-line], https://aei.pitt.edu/8378/01/PC200803.pdf. Wallison, P. J, 2012, Fair Value Accounting: A Critique. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, AEI Outlook Series, July 2008, [on-line], https://www.aei.org/ docLib/20080728_23336JulyFSOg.pdf.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Case QVC Author: NA HG495 Ã¢â¬â Case Analysis Instructor: NA Abstract This case analysis will be focused on the company QVC (Quality, Value, and Convenience). We will perform an analysis review, which, will provide a comprehensive insight into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s historical and current business structures, strategies and efficiencies in their operations. It will include a detailed SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) (Humphrey) and the primary activities of the Value Chain Analysis (Porter), to provide greater insight into the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ competitive advantage. These key concepts will be used to analyze QVCÃ¢â¬â¢s business model, define potential challenges and initiate a plan of execution. We will then recommend solutions such as advocating products with higher profit margins, finding evolving technologies and untapped markets and streamlining logistics. These strategies would expand the customer base and create higher ROI (Return of Investment), positioning the company towards timely growth. Introduction: QVC is a multimedia retailer, specializing in televised home shopping, broadcasting in five countries (US, UK, Germany, Japan and, Italy), 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to over 90 million households in the United States and 160 million homes worldwide. We will write a custom essay sample on Qvc Case Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They offer a wide range of products with over 1500 major brands and 50,000 products, including beauty, fashion and accessories, jewelry, craft and leisure, home electronics, garden, and do-it-yourself (DIY), and clearance goods. The company has store operations in the US, which includes Delaware and Pennsylvania. QVC also has a lucrative website called iQVC (www. qvc. com) that generates over 1 billion of sales on its Internet operations. Since it was launched in 1986; QVC has rapidly grown to become the largest television shopping network. By 2006, its reach had extended to over 95 percent of all U. S. cable homes, as well as, over 25 million satellite homes. It shipped over 140 million packages during 2006 to customers around the world, resulting in almost $7. 1 billion in sales and over 1 billion operating profit. Sales were made to over 10 million customers, who watched its shows across the US, UK, Germany, Japan and Italy. Problem: Doug Rose, QVCÃ¢â¬â¢s vice president of merchandising brand development, claims that the interactivity in all aspects of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business and operations, including its television shopping channel, will need to become more pronounced. Making it easier for customers to act on what they see. QVC believes that it still has a lot of room to grow, since only about 2% to 3% of its television viewers currently purchase at any given time. Bringing that percentage higher is the main problem that affects the major revenue stream and would require an internal/external analysis (balance scorecard) to bring in new viewers/customers to purchase their products. There are other challenges that can attribute to generating more revenue, such as, selling products with higher margins and offering shopping channels to customers outside North America. They could also add more interactive features that would allow more access.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Prenatal Care Essays Prenatal Care Paper Prenatal Care Paper It is very important that you begin your prenatal care early, and continue this care regularly throughout your pregnancy. You want to give your baby a healthy start in life. You also want to make sure that you stay healthy, too. Your health, and your babys health, are closely tied together. When you are pregnant, everything you do can have an effect on your baby. That is why it is important to see your doctor as soon as you think you might be pregnant and then to continue with regular visits once the diagnosis is confirmed. Throughout your pregnancy, your doctor will perform a number of tests and procedures to make sure both you and baby are doing fine. You will also be given advice on how to take care of yourself so your baby will be born in the best possible health. This means eating plenty of dairy products, meat, fresh vegetables and fruits, and whole grain breads and cereals, and limiting your intake of fat, cholesterol and salt. During pregnancy, your body requires more of certain nutrients such as calcium and iron. Your doctor may recommend a supplement if you are not getting enough from your diet. By the end of your pregnancy, you should only have gained in the range of 20 to 35 pounds. It is also very important not to or take any that have not been! approved by your doctor. Many women continue to exercise during most of their pregnancy; however, it is important to check with your doctor first to decide on an exercise program that is right for you. During the first visit, you will be asked for details about your complete medical history, including medical conditions, surgeries, past pregnancies and habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol. You will have a complete physical as well, with examination of the heart, lungs and breasts in addition to a Pap smear and pelvic exam. The doctor may order tests to rule out sexually transmitted diseases. You will need to give samples of blood for tests to assess your blood type and blood count, to see whether you have hepatitis or HIV, and to check whether you are immune to rubella. Additional testing may be done depending on your history. In addition to the routine blood work with the first visit, blood tests are done between 16-20 weeks and again at 28 weeks. The former is an optional test to screen for neural-tube defects such as spina bifida and Down syndrome. a repeat blood count to check for anemia. Depending on your age or a family history of certain birth defects, y! ou may be offered genetic testing (CVS or amniocentesis) early in the pregnancy. Subsequent exams are usually every four weeks until your 28th week of pregnancy, then every two weeks until your 37th week. After that, you will be seen weekly. Most of these visits involve checking your weight and blood pressure and testing your urine for protein and sugar. The doctor will listen to the babys heartbeat and measure your uterus, the size of the uterus in centimeters should equal the weeks of pregnancy. She will ask how you are feeling, whether the baby is moving and whether you are experiencing any problems such as cramping, bleeding, headaches or excessive swelling. You should write down any questions you have and ask them each visit. During the last few weeks of pregnancy, your doctor may wish to do a pelvic exam to see if your cervix has begun to dilate The education about what is good for babies and what is harmful, that mothers miss when they dont get the earliest possible care is very critical. If you do not receive any maternity care then you are putting yourself and your baby at serious risks and future problems. Remember, what you do while you are pregnant can effect the rest of your childs life.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Best Quotes to Pair With Vintage Photos on Social Media Sharing old photos of people, places, and events on social media is a good way to reminisce and add nostalgia. If youve decided to share your favorite images on social media during a Throwback Thursday, Flashback Friday, or some other tagged event involving sharing, there are some great ways to make your contribution even more special - and good things to know about sharing photos in general: Share one photo a week or less. Dont overwhelm your friends and followers with too many old photos. Just because you found an album of old photos doesnt mean you should bombard your social media followers. Choose one day a week, such as a Throwback Thursday or a Flashback Friday, and maybe even skip a week between postings.Be certain youre sharing only old photos. Dont make the mistake of incorrectly tagging recent photos with something like #tbt (Throwback Thursday), for instance. Stick with the oldÃ pictures you would find in a photo album or a stack of Polaroids. Vintage pictures are hugely popular, so the older, the better.Make sure you choose the best photos - ones that tell a story. For instance, if you were a baseball player, post a picture of the time when you scored your first home run. Post pictures that were taken with your entire familyÃ on vacation. Share a picture of a younger you doing something you still do today.Choose photos that might make people laugh. Unflat tering pictures of yourself from the past always make people smile. The goofier you look, the better. That said, if someone else looks unflattering, you might want to get their permission first. After all, this is supposed to be fun. Add other elements that make the sharing more special, such as a special quote from a famous person. The next time you are sharing vintage images online, try pairing them with some of the following vintage quotes from famous poets, novelists, storytellers, and others - these are sure to give an extra appeal. John Banville The past beats inside me like a second heart. Julian Barnes Memories of childhood were the dreams that stayed with you after you woke. Deb Caletti Summer, after all, is a time when wonderful things can happen to quiet people. For those few months, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not required to be who everyone thinks you are, and that cut-grass smell in the air and the chance to dive into the deep end of a pool give you a courage you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the rest of the year. You can be grateful and easy, with no eyes on you, and no past. Summer just opens the door and lets you out. Willa Cather I guess everybody thinks about old times, even the happiest people. Sidonie Gabrielle Colette What a wonderful life IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had! I only wish IÃ¢â¬â¢d realized it sooner. Walt Disney All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them. Albert Einstein Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile. Ralph Waldo Emerson Ã¢â¬Å"For every minute you are angry, you lose 60 seconds of happiness.Ã¢â¬ William Faulkner How often have I lain beneath rain on a strange roof, thinking of home. Neil Gaiman I miss the way I took pleasure in small things, even as greater things crumbled. I could not control the world I was in, could not walk away from things or people or moments that hurt, but I took joy in the things that made me happy. Kahlil Gibran Yesterday is but todays memory, and tomorrow is todays dream. Arsene Houssaye Always have old memories, and young hopes. Charlotte Davis Kasl A lifelong blessing for children is to fill them with warm memories of times together. Happy memories become treasures in the heart to pull out on the tough days of adulthood. Elizabeth Lawrence There is a garden in every childhood, an enchanted place where colors are brighter, the air softer, and the morning more fragrant than ever again. Laurie Lee Bees blew like cake-crumbs through the golden air, white butterflies like sugared wafers, and when it wasnt raining, a diamond dust took over which veiled and yet magnified all things. C.S. Lewis Gratitude looks to the Past and love to the Present; fear, avarice, lust, and ambition look ahead. You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream. Cesare Pavese We do not remember days; we remember moments. Your time is limited, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t waste it living someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s life. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let the noise of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. Stay hungry. Stay foolish. Marcel Proust There are perhaps no days of our childhood we lived so fully as those we spent with a favorite book. Vladimir Nabokov One is always at home in ones past. Eleanor Roosevelt The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. Dr. SunWolf Some things can only be understood when youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a tree house. With a pile of warm chocolate chip cookies. And a book. Charles R. Swindoll Each day of our lives we make deposits in the memory banks of our children. Oprah Winfrey The biggest adventure you can take is to live the life of your dreams. Lisa Whelchel Theres something about childhood friends that you just cant replace. The Wonder Years Memory is a way of holding onto the things you love, the things you are, the things you never want to lose. Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Essay Example Not especially the nature of brands and how consumers perceive them. With the combined efforts of the academe and the corporate world, the art of creating Brand Equity has been greatly helped, almost to the point of evolving a specific science for marketing success, or so it seems. This report will attempt to summarize the points articulated on the Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane KellerÃ¢â¬â¢s definitive reference text Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing Management (13th edition)Ã¢â¬ , specifically on the chapter of Building Strong Brands. This discourse will venture into the basic elements of a brand from the perspective of the brand Ã¢â¬Å"owner or authorÃ¢â¬ ; the nature of the benefits which brands are supposed to provide; observations on how marketing outcomes are determined by the consumers perception of the brand (brand equity) and how they are arrived at; how a brandÃ¢â¬â¢s value can be assessed and quantified; an analysis of branding strategies through the cases provided in the text, and the role of different brands in an established brand Ã¢â¬Å"architectureÃ¢â¬ (brand portfolio) and how consumer responses can be similarly assessed so as to provide a measure of confidence that a brand can expect from its prospective patrons (consumer equity). We can do well to use the American Marketing AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of a brand as a jumping board for analyzing the concept of Brand Equity. AMA stipulates that brands consists of a Ã¢â¬Å"name, term, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.Ã¢â¬ (Kotler and Keller 276) Further, this system for identifying products (or services for that matter) maybe designed so as to represent a tangible, functional or rational attribute relating to a productÃ¢â¬â¢s performance or any intangible associations such as those that are implied symbolically
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Science fiction and films - Essay Example The cyber punk nature of the film Ã¢â¬ËBlade RunnerÃ¢â¬â¢ is explicable as it involves the speculation of role of computerised human clones of the future, which is stimulating. As the film is associated with rave/techno subculture and substitutes enthusiastic blathering about technology, the cyber punk nature of the film was expressed in the way of narration and visuals. As the film involves the exciting about right things and a proper and respectful way of hacking the talent, the film excels in being a science fiction genre that explicitly talks about computerised clones of humans. As the computerised clones in the film are expressed in a highly criminalised manner, the necessity of expression of the criminal nature needs some symbolic lighting and expression that involves the value of life and humanity. As the lead character in the film Deckard prowls in the steel and micro chip jungle of 21st Century, the cyber punk nature of the film is explicitly seen in every inch of the na rration and story. However, the expression of humanity, detachment and precious nature of life involved inherently in the film give it a combined colour of film noir sub genre in addition to cyber punk sub genre for a science fiction genre film.... In addition to that the theme of the film concentrates on the replicant nature of Deckard and the reaction of Gaff about Deckard's dreams. As Gaff will be in control of a replicant the plot is to field an android to destroy unwanted androids. From here, the film introduces film noir sub genre in addition to the cyber punk sub genre in a science fiction genre film. The film noir genre and content of the film lies in the criminal background of replicants and a state killer tracking down them. As the plot is to murder the artificial people for their illegal acts (wanting to live more than the stipulated time against the wishes of the administration), the film noir nature of the film is expressed well by frequent voice over in the film. 2 In addition to that the general brutality (the brutality of four replicants, whom Deckard has to execute) violence and harsh dialogue are present in the characters. The harsh dialogue can be seen in the expression of the leader of the replicants who confront with their creator. As the inherent activities of replicants are related to crime and horror, the lead character also express some attributes of film noir with a trench coat and a gun. In addition to that there are anti hero characters in Deckard as he drinks too much, loner and does not trusts authorities. Though Deckard is a detective, the harsh dialogues like "They do not advertise for killers. I am not in the business. I am the business. If You are not a cop, you are little people", makes the narration of the film to have a noir type of content. One more aspect that establishes the noir nature in the film is that the violence is brutal and graphic. As the duty of Deckard is fatal (he is to kill the
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Reservoirs of Infection Essay Nasal carriage is the principal reservoir, and nasal colonization of the individual patient is the harbinger of subsequent infection. Healthcare workers are propounded to be potential reservoirs. Hand carriage and nasal carriage both are responsible, and they can be transient or persistent. For healthcare workers, the environment of care may function as a reservoir of colonization and infection. The body sites of the patients in the care units may specifically colonize bacteria. These include respiratory tract, any site on the skin such as surgical sites, burns, pressure sores, tracheotomy sites, sites of other foreign bodies, and normal skin, and the perineum and the rectum. In these settings, nasal swabs are inadequate, and culture of the wounds, tracheostomy sites, and sputum may be useful. Environmental contamination in a hospital has been known reservoirs, and virtually any surface, appliance, and instruments in the care setting may be suspected, but they seem to play insignificant roles in transmission of infection (Graffunder, E.M. and Venezia, R. A. , 2002). Modes of Transmission: The principal mode of transmission within an institution is from one colonized or infected patient to another via the hands of the healthcare workers, even though he or she is transiently colonized. Hospital acquired pneumonia that happens with MRSA is thought to be transmitted through air-borne infection (Graffunder, E. M. and Venezia, R. A. , 2002). Control: Handwashing is a time-honoured principle of routine infection prevention and control and is considered to be effective in eliminating transient hand contamination with MRSA and other pathogens acquired from patients or the environment. A simple 10-second hand wash with soap and water can ascertain absence of the bacteria from the contaminated hands in most of the cases. However, povidone iodine or alcohol is better washing agent (Graffunder, E. M. and Venezia, R. A. , 2002). Prescription: Decreasing broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy can reduce the risk of MRSA. Nursing workloads need to be maintained as reasonable level so as to maintain standard hygiene that reduces chances of infection. Drugs, such as, vancomycin is indicated in uncomplicated cases of MRSA. The other antibiotics that are recommended are tetracyclines or cotrimoxazole. Minocycline is also active against MRSA. Linezolid is recommended in skin and soft tissue infections caused by MRSA. Clindamycin is also an effective antibiotic, and a combination of rifampicin and fusidic acid and daptomycin have been found to be effective in such cases (Gemmell, C. G. et al. , 2006), (French, G. L. , (2006). Conclusion: MRSA is a threat, and this threat has been caused by the genetic make up of the bacteria and iatrogenic reasons. Strict hygienic measures in the healthcare facilities, awareness of this threat by the healthcare professionals, and appropriate management of MRSA infection along with surveillance still can reduce the spread and epidemic nature of these infections. References Brown, D. B. J. et al. , (2005).Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis and susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on behalf of the Joint Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Hospital Infection Society and Infection Control Nurses Association. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 56: 1000 1018. Enright, M. C. et al. , (2002). The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PNAS,; 99: 7687 7692. French, G. L. , (2006). Bactericidal agents in the treatment of MRSA infectionsÃ¢â¬âthe potential role of daptomycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 58: 1107 1117. Gemmell, C. G. et al. , (2006). Guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the UK on behalf of the Joint Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Hospital Infection Society and Infection Control Nurses Association. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 57: 589 608. Graffunder, E. M. and Venezia, R. A. , (2002). Risk factors associated with nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection including previous use of antimicrobials. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 49: 999 1005. Huang, H. et al. , (2006). Comparisons of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Hospital-Associated MSRA Infections in Sacramento, California. J. Clin. Microbiol. ; 44: 2423 2427. Johnson, A. P. , Pearson, A. , and Duckworth, G. , (2005). Surveillance and epidemiology of MRSA bacteraemia in the UK. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 56: 455 462. Millar, B. C. , Prendergast, B. D. , and Moore, J. E. , (2008). Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA): an emerging pathogen in infective endocarditis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 61: 1 7.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Newari Social and Cultural Connections to the Weather and Climate :: Nepal Religion Culture Essays Papers
Newari Social and Cultural Connections to the Weather and Climate The Newari people incorporate different aspects of the weather and climate of Kathmandu Valley into their daily lives. One of the most prevalent ways the weather and climate affects their lives is through religious practices and beliefs. The Newari people, who practice Buddhism and Hinduism, are very religious and traditional people, and not a month goes by that there isn't some special festival that is being celebrated by them. Three of these important festivals revolve around the role climate and weather play in the lives of the people. Gunla Dharma, which is celebrated during a month from the middle of August to the middle of September, is a holy Buddhist month. During Gunla Dharma, the people are required to visit a number of monasteries, shrines and other prayer courtyards. This festival takes place during the monsoon season, which would generally be a hindrance to the people, but they are mandated to make these pilgrimages no matter what the weather is and how hard it might be raining. Gathan Mugah is another festival that takes place in August, and is based off of Nepal's monsoon season. Since the farmers are very busy working the fields and tending crops during the rainy season, they often donÃâ¢t have the time to clean their homes or even bathe. During Gathan Mugah, which is known as the festival of cleaning, everyone in Kathmandu Valley cleans out their homes from corner to corner, fumigates the houses by burning incense to get rid of insects, does their laundry, bathes, and throws out the old toys of children. The most important festival of the year is also one that deals mainly with the weather and climate of Kathmandu Valley. Yanya Punhi is the festival of Indra, who is the god of rain and heaven. He is worshipped for bearing good weather on Kathmandu Valley and, subsequently, providing a good crop for the people. Each of these festivals is attributed to the weather of Nepal, and is extremely important to the culture of t he Newari people. The Newari peopleÃâ¢s adaptation to the weather and climate of Nepal is also obvious in their food and clothing choices.
Monday, November 11, 2019
The fabric of any society is held together by the standards of morality that we maintain and practice. Values are our personal set of beliefs about what is important, unimportant, right, wrong, good and bad. When we are confronted by choices, options, or moral dilemmas, the decisions we make will indicate what values we hold. Human values give worthiness and respect to life. The foundation of human values are based on Ã · Dignity of human life Ã · Respect and consideration for the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ Ã · The importance of integrity and service Ã · An attitude of non-violence Ã · The individual and collective quest for peace and happiness. In other words, values are a kind of a map in our minds of how things are or should be. Values are only our perception of the principles of nature that govern our lives or the universe, and not these principles themselves. People think that there should be a specific set of principles protecting and governing all human beings. However, others b elieve that values can be accepted in one culture and rejected in another culture. This idea is based on the belief that moral principles differ across cultures. Our moral values are our beliefs about what is important in life. Some values refer to how one should act (be honest, altruistic, self-disciplined) while other values refer to what one wants to accomplish or obtain in life (a lot of money, fame, a family, friendships, world peace). Because a person cannot Ã¢â¬Å"have it allÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"be all things,Ã¢â¬ priorities must be set and choices made. Setting your priorities often leads to value conflicts. We may want to be successful in your career, but we may also want a more relaxing lifestyle and more time to spend with friends and family. Here, the value of success may come into conflict with the value of family. Some examples of moral values are: integrity, respect, caring, justice, civic virtue, and openness. Anyway I am worried about the fact that our society is in moral decline. Morality is a very broad and complicated topic due to the fact that it is based primarily on individual opinions. Moral values constantly change with the generations. However, most people would agree that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s moral values are more tolerant of behaviour that, a generation ago, would have been considered obscene and immoral. For example, sex on television is accepted by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s public as normal, but until the 1980s one could hardly say theÃ word Ã¢â¬Å"sexÃ¢â¬ on television without being condemned. Yes, our society is currently in a rapid decline of moral values. Judging by current statistics, all that once was immoral is now considered moral. It seems as though people have lost their conscience and are now controlled by their surroundings. The majority of youth all over the world know very little about Moral Values. Very often the behaviour of children in society proves that moral values are hardly even a subject of importance. Today, the violence and crimes often occur when a troubled teen or a fragile child cannot handle the pressure and stress of reality. The influential factor of violence spreads so easily; a child finds this influence simply by turning the television set on. In fact, any news channel unfortunately shows the actions of teenagers committing the violent act of murder without any remorse. All of this animosity and chaos within children begin with not knowing the difference between the right and the wrong. But something should be done. The positive influence of religion, education, and peers greatly effect a childÃ¢â¬â¢s manner and behaviour. Traditional values and important lessons from these sources certainly help a child to understand the distinction between right and wrong choices in life. An important value for children to be aware of is the benefit of religion. The church teaches children to accept the existence of a being higher than man and gives a child the possibility to learn the moral values the way the Bible presents them. By understanding the responsibility of choice making, young people learn to think about the consequences or aftermath of their decision. Religion serves as a foundation for knowing the difference between the right and the wrong. The involvement of religion better prepares children for certain difficulties in life. The value of education is an important tool that induces the growth of young people to a more sophisticated level. Education builds knowledge and integrity into the minds of children. School also guides children away from trouble; with essays and math problems, a child has no time for trouble. Parents must emphasize the importance of education to their children. Education strengthens the capabilities of the youth. A child becomes a better individual when he experiences the goodness of church, education, andÃ friendship; that is the relevancy of values and lessons. In order for the nation to minimize crime, the children of this generation must reevaluate their choices and responsibilities in life. They also need the assistance of parents and teachers for guidance through the tough reality of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making. The aim should be to produce morally viable, responsible individuals and not scholars. Sadly today the virtues like honesty, integrity and respect are considered old fashioned. There has been gradual erosion in these values. The growing crime rate among the children in the developed nations is a good instance of lack of moral values. Whenever and wherever preference is given to materialism over moral values, it leads to total chaos. No one can be at peace, be it an individual, a community, a nation, or the whole world. Moral education is not something that can be imposed on someone from outside; rather it is a way of life. Fast changing society has its special problem Ã¢â¬â old social structures go away and replaced by new ones. Hence the old moral values get into the clash with the new ones, and this is not a clash of different social groups, this is a clash inside one person. Market based society, which by its nature breaks boundaries between individuals, creating more opportunities, creates moral problems. As a result Ã¢â¬â there are two sets of contradicting moral values in the personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and there is no balance. These are the examples Ã¢â¬â changing relationship between sexes, between employer and employee leading to the internal conflict of moral values. It is matter of great concern and regret that today upbringing means providing good food, clothes and luxuries of life only. Moral values are no longer an integral part of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s rearing up. Some years back, grand parents provided moral education to grand children in the form of bedtime stories. But with the advent of nuclear families, moral education has become the responsibility of the educational institutions. But it should be the responsibility of the parents to bring out the best and divine in their child. There is no more powerful creature for a child than parents. The system of learning and adaptation to the life and society in particular is based on hungry absorption by kids of behavioural patterns and ideas from parents. Parents share subconsciously and freely with their kids all they know up to the point, when kids get problems. Actually it is very hard to limit voluntarily parental control, even harder to find the right balance. At least subconsciously, adults perceive their kids as a continuation of themselves. This perception produces protective and controlling behaviour, which kids need to survive and learn. However there is an important kidÃ¢â¬â¢s need which adults do not perceive Ã¢â¬â the need to learn how to make decisions and the need to make them. I mean real decisions, which carry serious consequences, decisions which adults make all the time, which no adult can avoid, and which adults do not want to avoid, because they are the essence of the life. Drugs and crime endanger the survival potential of youth and parents as well as educators. They endanger childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future and threaten the very fabric of society. Drugs inevitably lead to ruined lives. Harmful actions and criminal behaviour bring unhappiness, and not just for the victim but the perpetrator as well. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, teaching youth the difference between right and wrong is not just a good idea, it is a vital action that directly relates to the survival potential and happiness of children and society. As an educator and one who truly cares about the well-being and future of our children parents really have an opportunity to help young people steer away and stay away from lives of drugs and crime. A little reflection will show that most of great men were great because they were more humane than the rest of us. With total chaos and dwindling moral values, and a mad rush for material comforts, it has become clear that it is only moral education that can bring solace to the otherwise tormented soul.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
I believe the largest impact on policing has been made by the simple invention of the two way radio which has in turn been expanded upon with cell phone and mobile internet capabilities. I had read this in textbooks concerning the evolution of policing, but reading this article certainly helped to confirm it. The advent of the car and of two-way wireless communications systems brought about what it called an Ã¢â¬Å"incident-drivenÃ¢â¬ policing strategy that relied on random patrol and rapid response in radio-equipped patrol cars to prevent crime. However, research conducted in the latter part of the century on the impact of this strategy found it to be too costly in terms of the actual number of officers and vehicles that an agency would have to deploy to have a meaningful impact. Research also found that adopting this strategy contributed to the social distancing of the police from the community, with its consequent negative effect on an agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to not only prevent and detect crime but also on its ability to enforce the law and to maintain order. While the ability to communicate instantly over long distances is certainly a boon when it comes to coordinating efforts to detain criminals on the run, it has damaged the relationship the police have with the public. Crime typically happens in such a small window it is often rare that a police officer arrives in time to prevent its commission or at the very least its escalation. Not only that, the addition of the accessibility of the internet can make it painfully obvious the difference of the level of effort in some communities as opposed to others. Either way, it seems to be losing battles for law enforcement as budgets are cut yet more is asked of them while at the same time embellishment of negative incidents makes it more difficult for them to perform their duties in an increasingly more sensitive public environment. Being that funding is based on the surrounding areas and their ability to generate taxes, it seems we are on an inevitable course that will see justice served only to those with the means to fund its pursuit.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Manager Essays Manager Essay Manager Essay Volkswagens U. S. subsidiary has launched a new pro-cess for allocating scarce IT budgets across a portfolio of project requests, in an effort to align IT activities better with corporate strategy. Now that they have used the process for the first time, though, and arrived at a list of approved projects, no one seems happy with the outcome. This case provides an opportunity to discuss the difficult governance issues that arise in making IT investment decisions. As you read the case, consider these questions: What is your assessment of the new process for managing priorities at Volkswagen? Are the criticisms Justified? Is it an improvement over the old process? Who controls the budgets from which IT prohects are funded at Volkswagen of America? Who should control these budgets? How should Matulovic respond to his fellow executives who are calling to ask him for special treatment outside the new priority management system? Dr. Uwe Matulovic, chief information officer (CIO) of Volkswagen of America (VWoA), placed the telephone in its cradle and leaned back in his chair, replaying the Just- completed conversation with one of his peers from the Executive Leadership Team (ELT). The call, Matulovic mused, had been similar to three others he had participated n that week, each with a different ELT member. The results of a new prioritization processÃ¢â¬ a list of IT projects that would be funded in 2004Ã¢â¬ had been unveiled only a few days earlier. But already a storm was gathering. The phone calls from other executives had common themes. All the callers had expressed concern that high priorities for their areas of the company had not been funded. Some had repeated views expressed during the prioritization process by people who worked for them about supposed categorization mistakes that penalized Copyright 2005, 2007 President and Fellows of Harvard College. Harvard Business School Case 606-003. Professor Robert D. Austin, Dr. Warren Ritchie, and Greggory Garrett prepared this case as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate effective or ineffective management. Certain details have been disguised. Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business School. their business units. And each of the calls had concluded with an informal request to insert an unfunded project (or two) into the IT departments work plans. We dont have to reopen the process, the most recent caller had said, but perhaps spare capacity might be applied to make some progress on this project in 2004Ã¢â¬ weve one this before, and it would mean a lot to our area and to the companys growth plans. The 10 business units that made up MOA had proposed more than 40 projects, with funding requirements totaling $210 million (US). A budget of only $60 million (an amount capped by Volkswagen Group (VWAG), the parent company of MOA) made some degree of disappointment inevitable. But the intensity of pushback against the new process was surprising. The ELT had endorsed the idea of improving upon the old way these decisions were made, via unstructured debate explicit and link projects and the core business processes they impacted with MOA corporate goals. An orderly, rational process would replace what, in the past, had sometimes been haphazard. But now, questions were being raised about whether the new process was right for MOA. 50 Module Three IT Leadership EXHIBIT 1 The Himalayas Chart Some business units had seen none of their projects funded. Whispers throughout the company suggested that the process was too theoretical and noted that IT infrastructure projects had been treated separately, not forced through the same process, which many considered unfair. As Matulovic peered through the window into an overcas t sky, he wondered whether he should order exceptions to the rocess. If a project was small and Just below the line of funded projects, maybe IT should figure out a way to get it done. Or maybe he should stand his ground and defend the new process. Matulovic did not work for the other members of the ELT, but he did have to work with them. Whatever he decided could certainly affect working relationships, so he would need to consider his options carefully. Backgrowid Ã¢â¬ Volkswagen of America Ferdinand Porsche designed the first Volkswagen automobiles during the 1930s in Germany. The original vehicles, targeted at the mass market (Volkswagen means, iterally, peoples car), were intended to transport a family of five at highway speeds, use modest amounts of fuel, and remain within financial reach of most people. The companys signature platform by the late 1940s was the Beetle, which, with its rounded styling and reliable air-cooled engine, became internationally popular. For about 20 years, sales of the Beetle hurtled skyward, propelling the companys total worldwide vehicle sales past a million in 1955 and toa high point in 1969. Although popularity of the Beetle declined throughout the 1970s and its importation was discontinued in the United States, late in that decade, production of Beetles in Latin America continued into the 1990s. It remains the best-selling car of all time. After peaking in the late 1960s, the pattern of sales for the North American subsidiary of Volkswagen settled into a trying cycle of ups and downs that became known, due to its Jagged contours, as the Himalayas Chart (see Exhibit 1). Other marketing nameplates have sold more units, but these nameplates were not the same vehicle in different geographies, nor did they retain as much consistency in core design as the classic Beetle.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Beowulf vs. Grendel The epic poem, Beowulf, is infused with the forces of darkness and the forces of light, heaven and hell. These forces symbolize the forces of good and evil, between two of the main characters, Beowulf, and his rival, Grendel. Grendel's watery lair is dark, and he only hunts at night? darkness. The heroic warriors halls were they rejoice is illuminated? light. These two examples are just one of the many differences portrayed in the epic. Along with differences, there are also similarities. For example, during Beowulf?s and Grendel?s fight scene, the characters appear to be the reincarnation of ancient Mithraic twins, Cautes and Cautopates, who represent life and death. Grendel and Beowulf are completely different beings, when one detail brings out a comparable change in the other. Grendel is a descendant of Cain and a man-eater who is feared by the Danes. Living with his mother at the bottom of a foul lake, which hence his name, ?grenja? meaning ?to bellow,? or ?bottom of a body of water.? Grendel comes out at night, leaving his watery den in search for food. His prey, drunken warriors who slumber in Hrothgar?s golden halls, slaughtering them as they sleep, and then dragging their bloody corpse back to his lair for a feast of his own. Legendary warrior from Geatland and Edgetho?s son, Beowulf, is human, but seems super-human, having the strength of thirty men. Beowulf is also a monster in some ways, but not in the sense as Grendel. Beowulf arrives at King Hrothgar?s kingdom with thirteen of his warriors, to assist King Hrothgar with Grendel, with King Hrothgar accepting Beowulfs pledge to kill Grendel. Beowulf plans to rest at King Hrothgar?s castle, and wait for Grendels arrival. Later that night, Grendel comes to the castle, devours some of the men, and then confronted by Beowulf. Grendel is immune to human weapons, so Beowulf confronts Grendel with his bare hands, and with his super-human strength, rips off Grendel?s arm. Grendel?s death and his evil nature are directly connected with darkness. The connection between evil and darkness are repetitive throughout the text, and is strongest with the physical description of Grendel?s den, where his dead corpse rests. As hell receives Grendel?s body, a sense of peace and relief is present. Beowulf?s primal desire for blood and violence and his tales of his killings do no differ much from Grendel?s bloody night massacres at Herot. Beowulf and Grendel neither need weapons to fight, Grendel being immune to man-made weapons, bewitched blades, and can not be wounded by them, but Beowulf, human, defeats Grendel without the aid of man-made weapons. This elevates Beowulf above the human standards, revealing more monstrous qualities. Beowulf and Grendel not only contradict each other, but they also compliment each other. They both symbolize heaven and hell, light and dark, life and death with each characteristic they each hold. Both characters take on ?non-human? attributes, Grendel being a monstrous being and Beowulf having superhuman abilities.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Are males and females motivated differenlty in PE - Essay Example The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire to establish the gender differences in the motivation of students to participate in sports. The author, Nathalie Koivula, used a seven-point scale very similar to the one used by this author in the questionnaire created for this study. The author also discussed relevant research and studies previously conducted by other researchers. Koivuli (1999) concluded hr findings after explaining the results by stating that: The findings of the present study suggest that gender and gender-based processing correlate with the reasons given for participation in sports, some of which have been demonstrated in the present study, as well as earlier ones, to correlate with both frequency and the amount of time spent participating. It is therefore of interest to include these variables when generating and elaborating theoretical models to explain sport behavior. This article is useful to this study in that gender differences with regards to motivation is discussed in detail. This author was able to glean important points that was explained in the discussion section of this dissertation. It is important to note that although Koivuli had different results than this author, a point of comparison was made and an improvement in the motivation for participating in PE classes was seen as a result. Student Motivation in Physical Education: Breaking Down Barriers; Student Motivation in Physical Education Typically Declines after the Early Years. Why? and What Can Be Done about It? By Claire M. Mowling et al. This article discusses student motivation with regards to participation in Physical Education classes. The author delves into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and how they present a problem with regards to students not being encouraged that much to participate actively in PE classes. The author then proceed to outline methods on how to bring down the barriers and improvements that can be made in order to address the issue
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Argumentative - Research Paper Example This essay will argue in support of the points and concerns raised by the author by citing evidence from credible scholarly sources. It was anti-Semitism and fervent nationalism that consolidated government control of German, Italian and Chinese populations respectively in the bygone era. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s geo-political situation, terrorism is the most discussed issue in public discourse. Ever since the September 11, 2001 attacks on America, it has been a major pre-occupation of American diplomatic and military efforts. Since the United States is the leader of the prevailing uni-polar world, terrorism now has implications for all countries associated with it. In the context of the ongoing War on Terror, the concept of Islamist jihad is seen as the ideological springboard for the numerous suicide attacks witnessed recently. As a measure to retaliate and prevent terror attacks, America and its allies have initiated several counter-terror operations in perceived geo-political hotspots. To complement these efforts, the scale and scope of counter-intelligence operations are also upped. (Mcgrath, 2004, p.147) But the term counter-intelligence darkly reminds the reader of the CoIntelPro regime of the Cold War period, where the state abused its power to keep a check on citizen freedoms. Curbing civil liberties under whatever guise is seldom a progressive move, as examples from past and present clearly show: Ã¢â¬Å"Tyrants place populations under surveillance because that is a prime means of control. The Gestapo, the NKVD, the KGB, the Stasi, and the Chinese Politburo all requisitioned private data such as medical, banking, and library records; now, with the Internet, Chinese authorities track citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ computer use. One reason dictators demand access to such private data is that this scrutiny breaks down citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of being able to act freely against those in powerÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Wolf, Chapter 5, p.81) While counter-terrorism and counter-intelligence operations might have legitimate causes in certain exceptional cases, today it has come to represent hegemony and power. The record of the United States, especially under eight year reign of George W. Bush speaks ill of the notion of counter-intelligence. Interrogators working on the War on Terror project have resorted to such dehumanizing tactics such as solitary confinement in nudity in order to elicit intelligence information from suspects. Interrogators were learnt to have imposed nudity as a way of inducing Ã¢â¬Ëlearned helplessnessÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â which is akin to the psychological subjugation of American public to the domination and control by the elite business and political class. The Obama administration continued this tactic with Pfc. Bradley Manning. Whistle-blowers are being held naked in solitary confinement, Ã¢â¬Å"while our political establishment, a complicit media, and a professional class of lawyers and behavioral scientists attempt to veil American atrocities . Current targeted assassinations of American citizens, landmines, torture, and military tribunals sadly converge with the Bush-Cheney era policy of war andÃ counter-terrorism.Ã¢â¬ (Glazier, 2009, p.957) The dangers of indirect censorship and control articulated by Noami Wolf are easier to understand when we study the implications of recent legislations. For example, under George W. Bush's reign, the Foreign Intelligence
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Mechanical Measurements - Essay Example This technique is also sensitive to extreme temperatures because it affects the transition of the luminescent molecules (Mantel 2005). The PSP material is also used to develop coat for self adhesive tape and decals. This approach is preferable as itÃ¢â¬â¢s quick and easy during experimentation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also reduces the time consumed for surface preparation as well as cost minimization (Mantel 2005). Pressure sensitive paint technique is also used in wind tunnels for pressure management. Due to the ability of this technique to provide field management, it produces global surface maps with better resolutions. Producing high quality global surface maps however requires a clear understanding of the e internal mechanisms of the technique as well as the functions, properties and experimental setup (Sullivan & Liu 2004). This technique has been found to be easier, more accurate faster and cost effective as compared to the use of pressure ports and computational fluid dynamics for exte rnal pressure management. ... mage illustrates the parts of the pressure sensitive paint device The pressure sensitive paint is made up of luminescent molecules that are distributed in an oxygen permeable polymer binder. When the PSP is exposed to ultraviolet rays, it causes the luminescent molecules to gain a higher energy state. In this state the molecules can decay is several ways such as shifting the energy to the polymer binder, conflicting with the oxygen molecules on the PSP surface and discharging the light (Mantel 2005). The luminescent molecules are sensitive to oxygen molecules therefore when they collide with the oxygen molecules, they react to produce light. The produced light is inversely proportional to the amount of oxygen molecules available on the surface. Most of the collisions between the luminescent molecules and oxygen occur when the PSP is under a lot of pressure, therefore the amount of light emitted is inversely proportional to the pressure on the surface. Hence the pressure on the surfac e is easily calculated from the amount of light emitted. However, the challenge with the luminescent molecules transferring the energy to the polymer binder is that the energy transfer requires increase in temperature therefore causing the temperature on the PSP surface to rise (Mantel 2005). This affects the ability of the luminescent molecules to react with oxygen and could lead to release of inaccurate results. The effects of the temperature rise are slight because in most cases the temperature rises by a few degrees. The use of PSP could also be challenging because of the nature of experiments and high level of sensitivity. Fig 2 schematic diagram of pressure-sensitive paint measurement system TheÃ Moire?Ã techniqueÃ forÃ stress/strainÃ analysis The moire technique is used to determine
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Quantitative Determination of Atrazine The objective of this study is to develop a simple and economic spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of atrazine. This method is based on the complexation of atrazine derivatization (dechlorinated atrazine [DA]) with a mixture of formaldehyde and ketone compound, as described by Mannich reaction. The complex was determined by UV-Vis absorption measurement and the ketone compound used was the uranine due to its high coefficient absorption. The UV spectrum of the complex shows maxima of absorption at 207 nm and at 227 nm. An internal standard was used to quantify the atrazine. There is a good linearity between the absorbance and the concentration in the range of 0.1 10 Ã ¼g.mL-1 of atrazine. The recovery value was 97 % and the limit of detection was 0.01Ã µg.mL-1. Real samples collected from irrigation local area were analyzed using this method and the estimated concentration of atrazine found in the mentioned river is 0.29 Ã ± 0.011 Ã ¼g.mL-1. Keywords: Atrazine, dechlorination by zero valent iron, Mannich reaction, Spectrophotometer, quantification, internal standard, real samples measurements. Introduction Atrazine are widely used in agriculture, and their heavy use has resulted in the environmental pollution. Their persistent presence had been a serious problem, especially in surface and ground water systems. Atrazine herbicides were often used especially in Europe and the United States (1, 2), as important atrazine and simazine have been greatly used in maize cultivation and forestry. Their solubility in soil is low, and then can migrate along the food chains, and their intense use and presence in the environment have created a health threat to human beings. Recently, they have been considered as a group to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (3). The European Union Drinking Water Directive sets official regulations on the maximum admissible concentrations in drinking water as 0.1 mg.L-1 for an individual herbicide and 0.5 mg L-1 for total pesticides (4) whereas in surface water the alert and alarm threshold values are typically 1 and 3 mg.L-1 (5). Hence, the development of sensitive a nd economic analytical methods is very crucial for screening the presence and amounts of atrazine and preventing toxicological risks. In general, gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are the techniques popularly used for the determination of atrazine and simazine (6-9). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), amperometric immunosensor, and adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination were developed for the analysis of atrazine and simazine, (10-13). In general, these techniques are expensive and involve time-consuming separation steps. These methods are unsuitable for field testing, for continuous monitoring or for screening high numbers of samples as required in mapping pesticide pollution in time and space. The objective of this work is to analyse the atrazine by a economic and rapid method. The proposed method in this work is based on the dechlorination of atrazine [DA] by zero valent iron powder (ZVIP), according to the reference fourteen (14) and using the [ DA] obtained in the Mannich reaction in order to give rise a by product having an extinction coefficient absorption more intense than atrazine compound. Materials and methods Chemicals and reagents All chemicals and solvents used were of analytical grade or of a higher grade when available. Formaldehyde, hydrochloric acid were purchased from Fisher, (MA, USA). Atrazine was purchased from Rodel-dehein, zero valent iron powder (350 mesh) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich Ultra pure water was prepared using a multi-Q filter system (Millipore, MA, USA). Instruments The UV absorption measurements were performed on a Shimadzu UV- 1650 PC. With 10 mm quartz cells were used for spectrophotometric measurements. The pH values are measured using METTLER TOLEDO pH-meter. Standard Solutions Stock solution of atrazine was prepared into a volumetric flask at a concentration of 10 Ã ¼g.mL-1, 10 mL of this solution were mixed with 20 mL of acidified di-ionized water (pH = 4) and transferred into a flask of 100 mL. 2.5 g of zero valent iron powder were also added into the flask and shacked for 15 minutes. A complete dechlorinatation of atrazine must be achieved according to the previous work (14). This solution was in the Mannich reaction. Calibration Curves Samples for analysis were prepared by mixing uranine , formaldehyde and dechlorinated atrazine solutions. De-ionized water was transferred into each sample to reach a final volume of 10 mL. Calibration curves were built for quantitative measurements using the samples prepared according the table 1. Composition of samples used to build regression curve of the absorbance of the complex obtained by Mannich reaction and atrazine dechlorinated [DA] Internal standard curve addition and Recovery Atrazine dechlorinated was added as an internal standard for the calibration of the measurement, according to the method described in (Muel and Lacroix, 1960; Rima, Lamotte and Joussot-Dubien, 1982) (16, 17). Determination of the pH was done using a Mettler Toledo (OH, USA) pH-meter. Samples for analysis were prepared by mixing 0.5 ml of uranine (10 Ã ¼g.mL-1), 1mL of pure formaldehyde and different volumes of dechlorinated atrazine stock solutions diluted to [0.75 Ã ¼g.mL-1] (1-1.5 -2- 2.5 and 3 mL). De-ionized water was transferred to each sample to reach a final volume of 5 mL. Table 2 describes the preparation of the standard curve. Recovery experiments were performed by standard addition method: 0.15 Ã ¼g.mL-1 of Atrazine dechlorinated was added to samples and percentage of recovery (R%) was calculated as follows: R% = [(Cr-Cf)/Cr] 100 Cr = Real concentration of atrazine in the fortified samples Cf = Concentration of atrazine obtained by the internal standard addition curve River water analysis The water analyzed was collected from River in the north of Lebanon.[agricultural area] 100mL of the polluted water were treated by zero valent iron powder according to the protocol mentioned above. The samples were fortified by solutions of dechlorinated atrazine having an initial concentration of 0.75 Ã ¼g.ml-1 in order to build the internal standard curve. Table 3 summarizes the volumes of different solutions used in the mixtures. Results and Discussion Mechanism of the dechlorination of atrazine Most halogenated hydrocarbons, RX, can be reduced by iron metal. The overall reaction (Equation 1) results in dehalogenation of RX. Three general pathways by which this process may occur have been proposed (Matheson and tratnyek,) (18). The first involves direct reaction of the metal surface, in which case equation (A) alone adequately represents the pathway of reduction. The other two possible pathways do not involve the metal surface directly. Instead, Fe2+ and H2, which are products of corrosion by water, serve as the reductants that are directly responsible for dehalogenation of RX equation B and C. Fe0 + RX + H+ Ã¢â â Fe2+ + RH + X- A 2Fe2+ + RX + H+ Ã¢â â 2Fe3+ + RH + X- B H2 + RX Ã¢â â RH + H+ + X- C More specifically the atrazine can be written as RX ( X = Cl ). With zero valent iron powder in the acidic aqueous solution the chlorine can be replaced by the hydrogen. According the following reaction: Effect of the dechlorination of atrazine on its extinction coefficient absorption. UV absorption spectra of atrazine in aqueous solution (1.5Ã ¼g.mL-1) were recorded and compared to the spectra of the by-product obtained by the treatment of atrazine as shown in figure 1. Atrazine was dechlorination by zero valent iron powder according to the method described by Matheson, L.J et al (18). The extinction coefficient of the atrazine at the 220 nm (maximum of absorption) was estimated the value of 35200 M-1.L; whereas the extinction coefficient of the dechlorinated atrazine which give a maximum at 210 nm was found equal to 169000 M-1.L. Figure 1. The experimental observations revealed that by the removal of the chlorine atoms an hyperchromic and hypsochromic effects were observed. An increasing of the extinction coefficient and a blue shift from 220 nm to 210 nm of the maximum of absorption were detected. According to the table 4 , the proton that accompanies the formation of the free amine in Equilibrium 1 is available to protonate other reactants in the solution (Equilibria 2 and 3). Addition of the free amine to a protonated molecule of formaldehyde leads to the formation of the iminium ion shown at the right of (Equilibria 4). The enol of acetone then adds to the carbon atom of the iminium ion in (Equilibrium 5). In the equilibrium 1 as shown in the table 1, the nitrogen is enriched by electrons of the CH3 group and this nitrogen will react with H+ as base/acid reaction. However, when the electrons of the nitrogen, are deprived under the influence of the electron affinity of chlorine, this nitrogen will lose its basic character, then the Ã ©quilibre1 should be disturbed .In the other hand the nitrogen of the Equilibrium 4 play a nucleophilic role and ,if this nitrogen is disadvantaged by a chlorine attractive effect; it will lose the nucleophilic characteristics and the reaction with the carbon of the aldehyde in the Equilibrium 4. cannot be obtained In the case of atrazine it well known that the chlorine plays the role of the electrons donor to the nitrogen of the cycle and the electrons attractive of the aliphatic nitrogen. Since the Mannich reaction must take place at the aliphatic nitrogen not at the aromatic nitrogen and when the chlorine was removed by dechlorination process, the electrons at the aliphatic nitrogen become more dense and then it will be more able to play the role of nucleophilic atoms as mentioned in Mannich reation. In conclusion when the chlorine is removed from atrazine, the Mannich reaction can be observed as we demonstrated experimentally. Identification of the complex obtained in the mixture atrazine dechlorinated-formaldehyd and uranine The Mannich reaction is an organic reaction which consists of an amino alkylation of an acidic proton placed next to a carbonyl functional group with formaldehyde and ammonia or any primary or secondary amine. The final product is a Ã ²-amino-carbonyl compound also known as a Mannich base. Reactions between aldimines and Ã ±-methylene carbonyls are also considered Mannich reactions because these imines form between amines and aldehydes. Equation D (15). We hypothesized that the reaction between uranine, formaldehyde and dechlorinated atrazine must be similar to reaction E. The mechanism of the reaction is the following: Equation E Atrazine compound presents a UV spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 220 nm whereas dechlorinated atrazine presents a maximum of absorption at 210 nm Spectra of atrazine and dechlorinated atrazine are presented in Figure 1. The mixture of dechlorinated atrazine, formaldehyde and uranine give rise to the formation of a complex described by the Mannich reaction. It is obviously that formaldehyde does not have any UV spectrum. The UV spectra of the complex give rise to a spectrum with two maxima at at 207 nm and 227 nm respectively. Figure 2 presents the spectra of atrazine. dechlorinted atrazine and the complex obtained by Mannich reaction. Atrazine 2 Ã ¼g.ml-1 (A) (DAÃ : dechlorinated atrazine by zero valent iron powder), (DA+ H2CO : dechlorinated atrazine by zero valent iron powder with formaldehyde) (DA+ H2CO + uranine : : dechlorinated atrazine by zero valent iron powder with formaldehyde) Regression curve between the complex formation A calibration curve of the complex was built to examine the linearity of the complex absorbance and atrazine concentrations. The least square method was used to calculate the regression equation. A strong linear correlation was obtained between the absorbance of the complex and the concentrations of atrazine. Figure 4 shows the regression curve of complex absorbance in function of atrazine concentrations. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99 in a concentration range of 0.15 Ã ¼g.mL-1 to 0.75Ã ¼g.mL-1.The precision of the method was evaluated with relative standard deviations (RSD) of atrazine determination in five samples. RSD was 3 %. The limit of detection of the method was 0.01Ã µg.mL-1 as defined by a signal-to-noise ration of 3:1 (19). Spectrophotometric method for quantification of atrazine e using the internal standard addition model A spectrophotometric method using the internal standard addition was examined to quantitatively determine melamine concentrations in samples. A calibration curve was described by the following equation: A*= aC + b, which is equivalent to A* = (A0* /C0) x Cadd + A0*, with A* = (A/ A0) normalized absorbance intensity (arbitrary values), is equal to the ratio of the absorbance intensity after adding the internal standard A to the absorbance intensity before adding the internal standard (A0) C0: solute concentration to be estimated. C0 is determined by the negative intercept of the curve with the abscissa axis (16, 17). A0*: normalized absorbance intensity of the starting solution Cadd: known added concentrations. The plot of A* vs. Cadd is shown in Figure 5. The internal standard used in this method was the atrazine that we would like to determine (C0). To this initial solution, different known concentrations (Cadd) were added. The average recovery for five samples spiked with melamine as described above in Table 1 was estimated to be 97% Ã ± 3. Table 5 summarizes the validation parameters of this method. Spectrophotometric method for the quantification of atrazine in a sample taken from an agricultural zone, using the internal standard method. Samples taken from a water source contaminated with atrazine, are processed by zero valent iron powder for the dechlorination of atrazine molecules. A definite volume of this solution is mixed with the same concentrations of formaldehyde and uranine. Different volumes of standard solution of dechlorinated atrazine were added to the solutions to be analyzed. The composition of these solutions are summarized in Table 3. The UV-Vis spectra of the solutions were recorded to follow the evolution of the complex obtained after the mixture called Mannich mixture. Using the evolution of UV-Vis spectra, an internal standard curve could be constructed and the intersection of this curve with the axis of abscises gives the concentration of atrazine in the waters of Agriculture . The concentration of atrazine in these waters is estimated at 0.29Ã ± 0.011 Ã ¼g.mL-1 (n = 5). Conclusion The spectrophotometric method used to analyse the atrazine in agriculture water was based on Mannich reaction .This new method is a specific and simple method for the quantitative determination of atrazine in the contaminated water. Often the determination of atrazine is measured by sophisticated and expensive methods like HPLC, GC/MS. However the proposed method is easy to use, rapid and economic and it showed high accuracy, but it was restricted by the potentiality of the spectrophotometer which reaches a limit of detection of 0.01 Ã ¼g.mL-1 as described in the manuscript.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Manic depression is an illness that affects how people think, feel, and act. These people have really extreme episodes of mania (highs) and depression (lows.) It happens to about 1% of the population, both equally in men and women. When the person is going through a manic episode they have lots of energy, talk fast, jumping from topic to topic. Also, their thoughts are racing, they have a higher self-esteem, and have more enthusiasm. They also may not need as much sleep. During this time, the person feels normal and they are not aware that they’re behaviors may not be normal. They almost feel if the are “on top of the world.'; Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A depression episode on the other hand is almost opposite of a manic one. During a depressive episode, the person is sad, irritable, has low self-esteem, negative thoughts, and loss of interest in usual activities. They feel like they’re worthless and hopeless. They also have negative thoughts towards the past and future. Many people go through guilt, crying, or having suicidal thoughts. Unlike a manic episode, the person has lack of energy, and either an appetite loss or gain. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Manic depression is a recurrent illness, so a person usually has more than one episode. These episodes can last from weeks to months. They occur whenever and have no certain pattern. Sometimes a stressful life event can trigger an episode, and sometimes they just happen. If a person has more than four episodes a year they are known as “rapid cyclers';. This is more common in women. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There is no exact reason for what causes manic depression, but some doctors say that it may be from imbalances of certain kinds of brain chemicals.