Thursday, October 31, 2019

Argumentative Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Argumentative - Research Paper Example This essay will argue in support of the points and concerns raised by the author by citing evidence from credible scholarly sources. It was anti-Semitism and fervent nationalism that consolidated government control of German, Italian and Chinese populations respectively in the bygone era. In today’s geo-political situation, terrorism is the most discussed issue in public discourse. Ever since the September 11, 2001 attacks on America, it has been a major pre-occupation of American diplomatic and military efforts. Since the United States is the leader of the prevailing uni-polar world, terrorism now has implications for all countries associated with it. In the context of the ongoing War on Terror, the concept of Islamist jihad is seen as the ideological springboard for the numerous suicide attacks witnessed recently. As a measure to retaliate and prevent terror attacks, America and its allies have initiated several counter-terror operations in perceived geo-political hotspots. To complement these efforts, the scale and scope of counter-intelligence operations are also upped. (Mcgrath, 2004, p.147) But the term counter-intelligence darkly reminds the reader of the CoIntelPro regime of the Cold War period, where the state abused its power to keep a check on citizen freedoms. Curbing civil liberties under whatever guise is seldom a progressive move, as examples from past and present clearly show: â€Å"Tyrants place populations under surveillance because that is a prime means of control. The Gestapo, the NKVD, the KGB, the Stasi, and the Chinese Politburo all requisitioned private data such as medical, banking, and library records; now, with the Internet, Chinese authorities track citizens’ computer use. One reason dictators demand access to such private data is that this scrutiny breaks down citizens’ sense of being able to act freely against those in power†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Wolf, Chapter 5, p.81) While counter-terrorism and counter-intelligence operations might have legitimate causes in certain exceptional cases, today it has come to represent hegemony and power. The record of the United States, especially under eight year reign of George W. Bush speaks ill of the notion of counter-intelligence. Interrogators working on the War on Terror project have resorted to such dehumanizing tactics such as solitary confinement in nudity in order to elicit intelligence information from suspects. Interrogators were learnt to have imposed nudity as a way of inducing ‘learned helplessness’ – which is akin to the psychological subjugation of American public to the domination and control by the elite business and political class. The Obama administration continued this tactic with Pfc. Bradley Manning. Whistle-blowers are being held naked in solitary confinement, â€Å"while our political establishment, a complicit media, and a professional class of lawyers and behavioral scientists attempt to veil American atrocities . Current targeted assassinations of American citizens, landmines, torture, and military tribunals sadly converge with the Bush-Cheney era policy of war and  counter-terrorism.† (Glazier, 2009, p.957) The dangers of indirect censorship and control articulated by Noami Wolf are easier to understand when we study the implications of recent legislations. For example, under George W. Bush's reign, the Foreign Intelligence

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Mechanical Measurements Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Mechanical Measurements - Essay Example This technique is also sensitive to extreme temperatures because it affects the transition of the luminescent molecules (Mantel 2005). The PSP material is also used to develop coat for self adhesive tape and decals. This approach is preferable as it’s quick and easy during experimentation. It’s also reduces the time consumed for surface preparation as well as cost minimization (Mantel 2005). Pressure sensitive paint technique is also used in wind tunnels for pressure management. Due to the ability of this technique to provide field management, it produces global surface maps with better resolutions. Producing high quality global surface maps however requires a clear understanding of the e internal mechanisms of the technique as well as the functions, properties and experimental setup (Sullivan & Liu 2004). This technique has been found to be easier, more accurate faster and cost effective as compared to the use of pressure ports and computational fluid dynamics for exte rnal pressure management. ... mage illustrates the parts of the pressure sensitive paint device The pressure sensitive paint is made up of luminescent molecules that are distributed in an oxygen permeable polymer binder. When the PSP is exposed to ultraviolet rays, it causes the luminescent molecules to gain a higher energy state. In this state the molecules can decay is several ways such as shifting the energy to the polymer binder, conflicting with the oxygen molecules on the PSP surface and discharging the light (Mantel 2005). The luminescent molecules are sensitive to oxygen molecules therefore when they collide with the oxygen molecules, they react to produce light. The produced light is inversely proportional to the amount of oxygen molecules available on the surface. Most of the collisions between the luminescent molecules and oxygen occur when the PSP is under a lot of pressure, therefore the amount of light emitted is inversely proportional to the pressure on the surface. Hence the pressure on the surfac e is easily calculated from the amount of light emitted. However, the challenge with the luminescent molecules transferring the energy to the polymer binder is that the energy transfer requires increase in temperature therefore causing the temperature on the PSP surface to rise (Mantel 2005). This affects the ability of the luminescent molecules to react with oxygen and could lead to release of inaccurate results. The effects of the temperature rise are slight because in most cases the temperature rises by a few degrees. The use of PSP could also be challenging because of the nature of experiments and high level of sensitivity. Fig 2 schematic diagram of pressure-sensitive paint measurement system The  Moire?  technique  for  stress/strain  analysis The moire technique is used to determine

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Quantitative Determination of Atrazine

Quantitative Determination of Atrazine The objective of this study is to develop a simple and economic spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of atrazine. This method is based on the complexation of atrazine derivatization (dechlorinated atrazine [DA]) with a mixture of formaldehyde and ketone compound, as described by Mannich reaction. The complex was determined by UV-Vis absorption measurement and the ketone compound used was the uranine due to its high coefficient absorption. The UV spectrum of the complex shows maxima of absorption at 207 nm and at 227 nm. An internal standard was used to quantify the atrazine. There is a good linearity between the absorbance and the concentration in the range of 0.1 10 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1 of atrazine. The recovery value was 97 % and the limit of detection was 0.01 µg.mL-1. Real samples collected from irrigation local area were analyzed using this method and the estimated concentration of atrazine found in the mentioned river is 0.29  ± 0.011 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1. Keywords: Atrazine, dechlorination by zero valent iron, Mannich reaction, Spectrophotometer, quantification, internal standard, real samples measurements. Introduction Atrazine are widely used in agriculture, and their heavy use has resulted in the environmental pollution. Their persistent presence had been a serious problem, especially in surface and ground water systems. Atrazine herbicides were often used especially in Europe and the United States (1, 2), as important atrazine and simazine have been greatly used in maize cultivation and forestry. Their solubility in soil is low, and then can migrate along the food chains, and their intense use and presence in the environment have created a health threat to human beings. Recently, they have been considered as a group to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (3). The European Union Drinking Water Directive sets official regulations on the maximum admissible concentrations in drinking water as 0.1 mg.L-1 for an individual herbicide and 0.5 mg L-1 for total pesticides (4) whereas in surface water the alert and alarm threshold values are typically 1 and 3 mg.L-1 (5). Hence, the development of sensitive a nd economic analytical methods is very crucial for screening the presence and amounts of atrazine and preventing toxicological risks. In general, gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are the techniques popularly used for the determination of atrazine and simazine (6-9). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), amperometric immunosensor, and adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination were developed for the analysis of atrazine and simazine, (10-13). In general, these techniques are expensive and involve time-consuming separation steps. These methods are unsuitable for field testing, for continuous monitoring or for screening high numbers of samples as required in mapping pesticide pollution in time and space. The objective of this work is to analyse the atrazine by a economic and rapid method. The proposed method in this work is based on the dechlorination of atrazine [DA] by zero valent iron powder (ZVIP), according to the reference fourteen (14) and using the [ DA] obtained in the Mannich reaction in order to give rise a by product having an extinction coefficient absorption more intense than atrazine compound. Materials and methods Chemicals and reagents All chemicals and solvents used were of analytical grade or of a higher grade when available. Formaldehyde, hydrochloric acid were purchased from Fisher, (MA, USA). Atrazine was purchased from Rodel-dehein, zero valent iron powder (350 mesh) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich Ultra pure water was prepared using a multi-Q filter system (Millipore, MA, USA). Instruments The UV absorption measurements were performed on a Shimadzu UV- 1650 PC. With 10 mm quartz cells were used for spectrophotometric measurements. The pH values are measured using METTLER TOLEDO pH-meter. Standard Solutions Stock solution of atrazine was prepared into a volumetric flask at a concentration of 10 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1, 10 mL of this solution were mixed with 20 mL of acidified di-ionized water (pH = 4) and transferred into a flask of 100 mL. 2.5 g of zero valent iron powder were also added into the flask and shacked for 15 minutes. A complete dechlorinatation of atrazine must be achieved according to the previous work (14). This solution was in the Mannich reaction. Calibration Curves Samples for analysis were prepared by mixing uranine , formaldehyde and dechlorinated atrazine solutions. De-ionized water was transferred into each sample to reach a final volume of 10 mL. Calibration curves were built for quantitative measurements using the samples prepared according the table 1. Composition of samples used to build regression curve of the absorbance of the complex obtained by Mannich reaction and atrazine dechlorinated [DA] Internal standard curve addition and Recovery Atrazine dechlorinated was added as an internal standard for the calibration of the measurement, according to the method described in (Muel and Lacroix, 1960; Rima, Lamotte and Joussot-Dubien, 1982) (16, 17). Determination of the pH was done using a Mettler Toledo (OH, USA) pH-meter. Samples for analysis were prepared by mixing 0.5 ml of uranine (10 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1), 1mL of pure formaldehyde and different volumes of dechlorinated atrazine stock solutions diluted to [0.75 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1] (1-1.5 -2- 2.5 and 3 mL). De-ionized water was transferred to each sample to reach a final volume of 5 mL. Table 2 describes the preparation of the standard curve. Recovery experiments were performed by standard addition method: 0.15 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1 of Atrazine dechlorinated was added to samples and percentage of recovery (R%) was calculated as follows: R% = [(Cr-Cf)/Cr] 100 Cr = Real concentration of atrazine in the fortified samples Cf = Concentration of atrazine obtained by the internal standard addition curve River water analysis The water analyzed was collected from River in the north of Lebanon.[agricultural area] 100mL of the polluted water were treated by zero valent iron powder according to the protocol mentioned above. The samples were fortified by solutions of dechlorinated atrazine having an initial concentration of 0.75 ÃŽ ¼ in order to build the internal standard curve. Table 3 summarizes the volumes of different solutions used in the mixtures. Results and Discussion Mechanism of the dechlorination of atrazine Most halogenated hydrocarbons, RX, can be reduced by iron metal. The overall reaction (Equation 1) results in dehalogenation of RX. Three general pathways by which this process may occur have been proposed (Matheson and tratnyek,) (18). The first involves direct reaction of the metal surface, in which case equation (A) alone adequately represents the pathway of reduction. The other two possible pathways do not involve the metal surface directly. Instead, Fe2+ and H2, which are products of corrosion by water, serve as the reductants that are directly responsible for dehalogenation of RX equation B and C. Fe0 + RX + H+ ↔ Fe2+ + RH + X- A 2Fe2+ + RX + H+ ↔ 2Fe3+ + RH + X- B H2 + RX ↔ RH + H+ + X- C More specifically the atrazine can be written as RX ( X = Cl ). With zero valent iron powder in the acidic aqueous solution the chlorine can be replaced by the hydrogen. According the following reaction: Effect of the dechlorination of atrazine on its extinction coefficient absorption. UV absorption spectra of atrazine in aqueous solution (1.5ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1) were recorded and compared to the spectra of the by-product obtained by the treatment of atrazine as shown in figure 1. Atrazine was dechlorination by zero valent iron powder according to the method described by Matheson, L.J et al (18). The extinction coefficient of the atrazine at the 220 nm (maximum of absorption) was estimated the value of 35200 M-1.L; whereas the extinction coefficient of the dechlorinated atrazine which give a maximum at 210 nm was found equal to 169000 M-1.L. Figure 1. The experimental observations revealed that by the removal of the chlorine atoms an hyperchromic and hypsochromic effects were observed. An increasing of the extinction coefficient and a blue shift from 220 nm to 210 nm of the maximum of absorption were detected. According to the table 4 , the proton that accompanies the formation of the free amine in Equilibrium 1 is available to protonate other reactants in the solution (Equilibria 2 and 3). Addition of the free amine to a protonated molecule of formaldehyde leads to the formation of the iminium ion shown at the right of (Equilibria 4). The enol of acetone then adds to the carbon atom of the iminium ion in (Equilibrium 5). In the equilibrium 1 as shown in the table 1, the nitrogen is enriched by electrons of the CH3 group and this nitrogen will react with H+ as base/acid reaction. However, when the electrons of the nitrogen, are deprived under the influence of the electron affinity of chlorine, this nitrogen will lose its basic character, then the à ©quilibre1 should be disturbed .In the other hand the nitrogen of the Equilibrium 4 play a nucleophilic role and ,if this nitrogen is disadvantaged by a chlorine attractive effect; it will lose the nucleophilic characteristics and the reaction with the carbon of the aldehyde in the Equilibrium 4. cannot be obtained In the case of atrazine it well known that the chlorine plays the role of the electrons donor to the nitrogen of the cycle and the electrons attractive of the aliphatic nitrogen. Since the Mannich reaction must take place at the aliphatic nitrogen not at the aromatic nitrogen and when the chlorine was removed by dechlorination process, the electrons at the aliphatic nitrogen become more dense and then it will be more able to play the role of nucleophilic atoms as mentioned in Mannich reation. In conclusion when the chlorine is removed from atrazine, the Mannich reaction can be observed as we demonstrated experimentally. Identification of the complex obtained in the mixture atrazine dechlorinated-formaldehyd and uranine The Mannich reaction is an organic reaction which consists of an amino alkylation of an acidic proton placed next to a carbonyl functional group with formaldehyde and ammonia or any primary or secondary amine. The final product is a ÃŽ ²-amino-carbonyl compound also known as a Mannich base. Reactions between aldimines and ÃŽ ±-methylene carbonyls are also considered Mannich reactions because these imines form between amines and aldehydes. Equation D (15). We hypothesized that the reaction between uranine, formaldehyde and dechlorinated atrazine must be similar to reaction E. The mechanism of the reaction is the following: Equation E Atrazine compound presents a UV spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 220 nm whereas dechlorinated atrazine presents a maximum of absorption at 210 nm Spectra of atrazine and dechlorinated atrazine are presented in Figure 1. The mixture of dechlorinated atrazine, formaldehyde and uranine give rise to the formation of a complex described by the Mannich reaction. It is obviously that formaldehyde does not have any UV spectrum. The UV spectra of the complex give rise to a spectrum with two maxima at at 207 nm and 227 nm respectively. Figure 2 presents the spectra of atrazine. dechlorinted atrazine and the complex obtained by Mannich reaction. Atrazine 2 ÃŽ ¼ (A) (DA  : dechlorinated atrazine by zero valent iron powder), (DA+ H2CO : dechlorinated atrazine by zero valent iron powder with formaldehyde) (DA+ H2CO + uranine : : dechlorinated atrazine by zero valent iron powder with formaldehyde) Regression curve between the complex formation A calibration curve of the complex was built to examine the linearity of the complex absorbance and atrazine concentrations. The least square method was used to calculate the regression equation. A strong linear correlation was obtained between the absorbance of the complex and the concentrations of atrazine. Figure 4 shows the regression curve of complex absorbance in function of atrazine concentrations. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99 in a concentration range of 0.15 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1 to 0.75ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1.The precision of the method was evaluated with relative standard deviations (RSD) of atrazine determination in five samples. RSD was 3 %. The limit of detection of the method was 0.01 µg.mL-1 as defined by a signal-to-noise ration of 3:1 (19). Spectrophotometric method for quantification of atrazine e using the internal standard addition model A spectrophotometric method using the internal standard addition was examined to quantitatively determine melamine concentrations in samples. A calibration curve was described by the following equation: A*= aC + b, which is equivalent to A* = (A0* /C0) x Cadd + A0*, with A* = (A/ A0) normalized absorbance intensity (arbitrary values), is equal to the ratio of the absorbance intensity after adding the internal standard A to the absorbance intensity before adding the internal standard (A0) C0: solute concentration to be estimated. C0 is determined by the negative intercept of the curve with the abscissa axis (16, 17). A0*: normalized absorbance intensity of the starting solution Cadd: known added concentrations. The plot of A* vs. Cadd is shown in Figure 5. The internal standard used in this method was the atrazine that we would like to determine (C0). To this initial solution, different known concentrations (Cadd) were added. The average recovery for five samples spiked with melamine as described above in Table 1 was estimated to be 97%  ± 3. Table 5 summarizes the validation parameters of this method. Spectrophotometric method for the quantification of atrazine in a sample taken from an agricultural zone, using the internal standard method. Samples taken from a water source contaminated with atrazine, are processed by zero valent iron powder for the dechlorination of atrazine molecules. A definite volume of this solution is mixed with the same concentrations of formaldehyde and uranine. Different volumes of standard solution of dechlorinated atrazine were added to the solutions to be analyzed. The composition of these solutions are summarized in Table 3. The UV-Vis spectra of the solutions were recorded to follow the evolution of the complex obtained after the mixture called Mannich mixture. Using the evolution of UV-Vis spectra, an internal standard curve could be constructed and the intersection of this curve with the axis of abscises gives the concentration of atrazine in the waters of Agriculture . The concentration of atrazine in these waters is estimated at 0.29 ± 0.011 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1 (n = 5). Conclusion The spectrophotometric method used to analyse the atrazine in agriculture water was based on Mannich reaction .This new method is a specific and simple method for the quantitative determination of atrazine in the contaminated water. Often the determination of atrazine is measured by sophisticated and expensive methods like HPLC, GC/MS. However the proposed method is easy to use, rapid and economic and it showed high accuracy, but it was restricted by the potentiality of the spectrophotometer which reaches a limit of detection of 0.01 ÃŽ ¼g.mL-1 as described in the manuscript.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Manic Depression :: essays research papers

Manic depression is an illness that affects how people think, feel, and act. These people have really extreme episodes of mania (highs) and depression (lows.) It happens to about 1% of the population, both equally in men and women. When the person is going through a manic episode they have lots of energy, talk fast, jumping from topic to topic. Also, their thoughts are racing, they have a higher self-esteem, and have more enthusiasm. They also may not need as much sleep. During this time, the person feels normal and they are not aware that they’re behaviors may not be normal. They almost feel if the are “on top of the world.';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A depression episode on the other hand is almost opposite of a manic one. During a depressive episode, the person is sad, irritable, has low self-esteem, negative thoughts, and loss of interest in usual activities. They feel like they’re worthless and hopeless. They also have negative thoughts towards the past and future. Many people go through guilt, crying, or having suicidal thoughts. Unlike a manic episode, the person has lack of energy, and either an appetite loss or gain.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Manic depression is a recurrent illness, so a person usually has more than one episode. These episodes can last from weeks to months. They occur whenever and have no certain pattern. Sometimes a stressful life event can trigger an episode, and sometimes they just happen. If a person has more than four episodes a year they are known as “rapid cyclers';. This is more common in women.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There is no exact reason for what causes manic depression, but some doctors say that it may be from imbalances of certain kinds of brain chemicals.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

National Fabricators

Key Events/Case Synopsis National Fabricators Inc. is a company that specializes in the manufacturing of lockers, school furniture, toilet partitions, steel shelving, and is now currently owned by Tom Kruger after buying out $75,000 of shares from shareholders in 1992. The industry is very competitive as costs are rising and prices being cut while the economy declines at the same time. As the president of National Fabricators, Tom Kruger needs to bring the company back on its feet in order to generate profits and reduce its losses of $480,315 and outstanding bank loans of $784,000.Tom Kruger also predicts that sales would fall as much as 10% during the 1994 fiscal year due to government cutbacks on medical and educational spending as well as a sluggish level of consumer confidence. Tom Kruger is now faced with trying to get a 60 day extension for his temporary line of credit in order to get the company to start making profits again. Problem Statement and Objectives To save the compan y, Tom Kruger needs to get an extension of 60 days on his temporary line of credit so that he can keep losses to a minimum and start generating more profits.At the same time, the economy is declining, competitors are setting low prices, and the government is cutting back on educational spending. Tom Kruger realizes that his plant is not being utilized at full capacity and most of the operations were being primarily financed on bank credit due to insufficient cash at hand. To address these problems, Tom Kruger is now planning on developing a new plant layout for efficiency as well as requesting a line of credit extension in order to finance debt. Situation Analysis PortersAs we can see from the case, the metal industry is not an attractive industry because of high competition with low bids, unstable economy, high bargaining power of buyers, and high start up costs. Since the buyers have very little suppliers to choose from to do business with, it can be concluded that suppliers have bargaining power in this industry. Buyers on the other hand only have power when they are specialized at what they do and offer a very low price. Substitution is quite limited due to different specifications offered by the major companies.Barriers to entry on the other hand are very high due to the huge amount of capital needed to get a foot in to the industry. All in all competition is very high in this industry and one must bid aggressively in order to gain a contract. However, this is hard when everyone is giving their lowest bid. SWOT Analysis Overall, for National Fabricators the weaknesses outweigh the strengths for due to its failure towards managing both finance and operations for approximately 10 years.The threats also outweigh the opportunities mostly due the intense competition whcih provides a negative trend towards profits for National Fabricators within the industry. Strengths: †¢ The company has kept all of their old employees at the management level and this wil l allow them to keep stability while the company is under new ownership. †¢ With a strong sales team being compenstated on a commission basis, this will isnpire each employ to work harder to make and close sales; which in the long run will increase company profits. National Fabricator has contracts from purchaser who are very unlikely to default on their payables, because majority of them come from the government. †¢ Mr. Kruger, is well experienced for this position mostly due to his education and qualifications Weaknesses: †¢ The company lacks in a sufficient inventory management and cost management system, which impacts profits. †¢ With a deficiency of cash flow it forced the company to purchase materials from more costly warehouses other than Steelmills which is cheaper, which inreturn had increased manufacturing cost. Inproper scheduling and status reporting for work in progress caused a major ineffectiveness on plant capacity use, which had openly increased operating cost and reduced net profits. Opportunities: †¢ Buying from the Steelmills will result in an increase of operating profit while costs are being decreased. †¢ The company has the opportunity to grow in various markets and aquire new customers such as malls, hotels, offices, and motels not only in Canada but as well as the United States. Threats: †¢ Tremendous price and wage competition in a recurring industry will lead to additional losses in profits. The highest risk for National Fabricators is the three companies which are dominating the industry that have the investment ability to control industry standards and requirements, which could lead to a decrease in profits. †¢ Due to the long term contracts from the government it is impacting the company’s cash flow in a negative trend. Historical Financial Analysis †¢ Sales fluctuate due to the frequently cyclic nature of the industry but they aim to remain above 3 million annually. †¢ In 1 993 cost of goods sold being 90% of sales and 9. 6% gross profit of sales.Company’s lack of ability to manage inventory and lack of cash forced them to order from more expensive (12-15%more) warehouse than steel mills. †¢ Net profit margin has been negative and no major patterns over the 9 year period on net profit since the trend of the industry is based mostly on economic factors, and whether or not they secure contracts. Due to high percentage of COGS they are only left with a net profit of $980 or 0. 024% of sales in 1993. As a result, if the company lower the material cost, the profit margin will improve drastically. †¢ In 1984 current ratio went from 2. 07 to 1. 2 in 1993 which still is at an acceptable level, mainly due to the fact that operations were losing money in the past few years and there was a large cash drain on the company which resulted in the lowering of the current ratio. †¢ Operations were being financed by National Fabricators bank credit which resulted in outstanding bank loans of $784,000; this could cause serious problems on their credit rating from the local bank due to the worse intereage coverage ratio. †¢ Their average age of receivables in days is 78. 79 which had been steady around that number except in 1993 with 101 days mainly due to the holdback on large accounts.Since it is taking longer for them to convert accounts receivable into cash, the liquidity ability for the company is getting worse. | |1993 |1992 |1991 |1990 | |Liquidity | | | | | |Current Ratio |1. 12 |1. 34 |1. 32 |1. 58 | |Quick Ratio |0. 70 |0. 4 |0. 81 |0. 81 | |Profitability | | | | | |%Sales Growth |25. 7% |(17. 6%) |14. 4% | | |Gross Margin |9. 6% |10. 7% |7. 0% |7. 0% | |Net Margin |0. 02% |(1. 8%) |(5. 6%) |(6. %) | |Expenses/Sales |10. 0% |13. 3% |12. 8% |14. 1% | |ROE |0. 2% |(11. 4%) |(37. 8%) |(26. 3%) | |ROA |0. 04% |(4. 1%) |(12. 8%) |(11. 9%) | | | | | | | |Debt/Assets |75. % |64. 2% |66. 1% |54. 7% | |Debt/Equity |310. 4 % |179. 4% |195. 0% |121. 2% | Recommendation and Analysis We have chosen to recommend alternative #1, which will focus on improving their profits because they will be reducing the cost of materials from purchasing directly from Steel Mills rather than buying from the warehouses. By doing so this will help them convince Confederation Bank.Purchasing from producers rather than the warehouses will significantly save us an approximate 12-15%. This can help drastically with their profits being made. Another way to improve profit is by increasing profit margins and to do so they need to cut the cost of materials, which will be approximately 68%. By having cut material cost by 13. 5% National Fabricators will have $314,600, which is the amount they saved from the materials and it would increase their gross profits by that amount. Having laid out this plan everything looks very convincing but there are a couple set backs, which need to be worked out.Delivery is three months once purchased from the producers directly rather than one-day delivery from the warehouses, this may cause problems for daily operations. National Fabricators now has to pay off their suppliers in 30 days payments. It used to be 60-90 days but the change requires the need for more cash on hand. Nationals Fabricators will require the financial support of Confederation Bank in order to solve these set backs that will take place if they don't receive the help financial help they require. Being able to execute this plan we believe that National Fabricators would be able to convince the bank to extend the loan.This will benefit the company because not doing so will increase the financial problems. The reason being we didn't choose alternative 2 was because it was just too risky and way too costly especially with the risk at hand. Yes it was to better their sales but factor in that their attempts to migrate in the U. S. market also have the risk of not being successful. Also the number of other compani es already settled their will give a great competitive market and putting all this together would just show that there is much more risk at hand than reward. Exhibits and Analysis: Attached on next page

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Peer Evaluations in Enhancing Written and Oral Communication Essay

Communicative practices such as writing and reading are important components in the facilitation of education and learning. For educators, they must realize the relative importance of these communication practices for they are vital in the enhancement of learning. One way to address this is by creating peer review mechanisms. Though such may prove to be an important component in the facilitation of education, there are cultural impediments that continue to surround the facilitation of peer evaluations. â€Å"When we deal with English-as-a-second-language students, cultural factors may influence both the operation and outcomes of peer response groups. † (Nelson, 1997, p. 78) By being constantly aware of these issues, one can create effective peer evaluation mechanism that is free from cultural bias and prejudice. A collective action and approach must be created by instructors and teachers to address such problem. â€Å"To maintain the group cohesion and harmonious interpersonal communications interpersonal relations valued by collectivist cultures, collectivists use indirect means of communicating messages that may otherwise be disruptive to the group. † (Nelson, 1997, p. 82) Thus, giving of vital information is an important tool and component in the overall facilitation of peer evaluations in enhancing communication practices. â€Å"By being informed of cultural differences in communication, they may be better able to interpret the feedback they receive from the English-as-the-second-language students and also better able to provide these students with effective feedback. † (Nelson, 1997, p. 83) Enhancing the Writing Skills Effectiveness in writing is one facet that students must acquire in school as it is vital in the overall communication process not only in the educational sector but in different aspects of society. By enhancing such skills, an international student can be fit and remained at level with native speakers of the language. The main barrier and impediment in such scenario is the lack of expertise in the local and native language. The study of Koffolt and Holt showcases several important mechanisms that can improve writing skills of international students. The article seeks to showcase how teachers can be a vital part in the overall facilitation of efficient writing among students. By doing these, students can get the development in the realm of writing. â€Å"Teachers who play a more active role in guiding their students through the entire writing process of gathering ideas, organizing, drafting, and revising can help students produce writing that is thoughtful, coherent, and polished. † (Koffolt and Holt, 1997, p. 53) By providing several important measures that a teacher must consider is an important process to guide students in the overall facilitation of improving writing capabilities. One important method is by creating feedbacks on writing works by international students. By doing this, the student can actively assess his/her standing as far as competency in writing is concerned. The creation of a feedback system â€Å"gives them the opportunity to correct deficiencies in content, language and style. † (Koffolt and Holt, 1997, p. 54) For the part of instructors, there must be an active collaboration with an international student as far as writing is concerned. The instructor must recognize the relative challenges that an international student may face during the course of writing. That is why it is essential for the teacher to actively create writing strategies that will help improve the overall capacity of the student to write. However, the teacher must recognize that the process of such endeavor is not easy. â€Å"Writing is seldom a linear activity, and it is common for writers to go back and forth among different steps of the writing process as they complete a major writing task. † (Koffolt and Holt, 1997, p. 56)

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Karnataka Philosophy Essays

Karnataka Philosophy Essays Karnataka Philosophy Paper Karnataka Philosophy Paper Essay Topic: Cry the Beloved Country Ross Gay Poetry The Lord Of the Rings the Fellowship Of the Ring Much more this remark is applicable to Karnataka, from which the different currents of philosophy have flowed and flooded the rest of India and the whole world. The great Sri Sankar of monistic fame had his principal Math of Sringeri in Karnataka and began his life’s mission there. Sri Madhvacarya, the campion of Dualisn and Devotion, was entirely the product of this holy soil. Sri Basaveswar was another saint belonging to this eminent group. He is called â€Å"Bhakti-Bhandhari†- the treasure devotion – in Kannada. It was he who infused fresh life into veera-shaivism and made it a living faith. His inspiring personality attracted thousands of disciples who spread his new Gospel throughout the length and breadth of Karnataka. In their attempt to interpret the new message of their master to the masses, the eminent disciples of Basava, successfully utilized His Vachanas- a new form of literature in Kannada. These Vachanas are pithy (brief) sayings, brilliant in their directness and simplicity occasionally rising to the sublime grandeur even of the Upanisadic literature. They have brought light and hope to the Kannada masses and made their lives worth – living in all possible ways. Akka Mahadevi is one of the inspired disciples of Basava’s band. 2. BRIEF LIFE SKETCH OF AKKA MAHADEVI Akka Mahadevi was a prominent figure and Kannada poet of the Veerashaiva Bhakti movement of the 12th century Karnataka. Her Vachanas, a form of didactic poetry are considered her greatest contribution to Kannada Bhakti literature. In all she wrote about 430 Vachanas (another source says 350) which is relatively fewer than that compared to other saints of her time. The term Akka (elder Sister) which is an honorific (title) given to her by great Veerashaiva saints like Basavanna, Chenna Basavanna, Kinnari Bommayya, Siddharama, and Allamaprabhu. Akka Mahadevi was born in a town called ‘Udutadi’ in the centre of Karnataka in a Veera-saiva family. Her parents were the staunch followers of Trividhi philosophy of Guru, Linga and Jangama. She had an inborn devotion for God Siva. At age 10, she was initiated as a devotee of Shiva. She worshiped Shiva, whom she called Chenna Mallikarjuna, (Lord White as jasmine). Right from her childhood unlike other young girls she chose the Beautiful Lord, Pure white as the Jasmine, Chennamallikarjuna, as her playmate. Akka-Mahadevi was very beautiful. Her marvelous charm attracted the then ruling king- Kaushika who happened to be a Jain. Mahadevi agreed to marry Kaushika on three conditions. They are 1. She should be allowed according to her conveniences to practice the devotion of Lord Shiva, whom she calls Cenna Mallikarjuna. 2. She should be given freedom to listen and to meditate the life stories and teachings of ‘Siva Sharanas’ – saints of Lord shiva – and the practices of Saivism. . She should be allowed to practice the devotion of Trividhi philosophy –Guru, Linga, and Jangama. However, the male ego in Kaushika made him blind and he forced himself on her. Mahadevi outrightly renounced the marriage, with that she also renounced her parents, luxury, home and everything, considering them as impediments. She went bare to Kalyana where Allama was heading the Anubhavamantapa. Thus Mahadevi by renouncing the marriage with Kaushiaka emerged as the first protagonist of woman liberation. She discarded clothes and other worldly things as the last estiges of a sansarin and accepted the life of sanyasin. She left for Kalayana (a town in Bidar district of present Karnataka) which was known as God’s own city. Basaveshwara who is popularly known as Basavanna (elderly brother) has already launched a great social movement of casteless and classless society. Taking entry into his ‘Anubhavamantapa’ (the spiritual assembly) was not an easy task. Only those who are spiritually enlightened are allowed to come in, that too, after passing the kind of test held by the president of Anubhava Mantapa. Her renouncement of clothes and disregard for the body, or the acceptance of the life of nunnery was not an ordinary step in 12th century. Woman was not yet considered as equivalent to man. Her individual identity was under crisis. Even the great thinker and philosopher like Allamaprabhu questioned her unusual way of life. The picture of the discussion about this between Allama and Akka in the gate of Anubhava Mantapa? given by Chamarasa is not only an interesting literary piece but it is a candid and bold step in the history of whole womanhood. The discussion is as follows: Prabhu: Why have you come here in the prime of your youth? Our saints resent the sight of a young woman. If you can disclose the identity of your husband, you can join the fellowship of our saints, or else you can depart. A womans company is like poison. Tell us, who is your husband? Mahadevi: I was engrossed in penance for many years so that Siva might become my wedded lord! My own people wedded me to Siva by smearing my body with ashes and tying the marital bracelet to my wrist. All the world knows that the innumerable saints have been my parents. Therefore, O Prabhu, God is my lord; for me, there are no other husbands in this world. When Prabhu scolds her first for her nakedness Akka Mahadevi responds in this way: I have killed the cupid in myself and conquered this world. So I have no body. When I have no body, no sex where does exist the question of clothes? It is not the condition of the body that counts but, instead, a pure heart which wins the favor of God. I have covered my body with my hair so that the sight of my body may not be a cause of temptation for others. Prabhu questions whether Akka Mahadevi can be one with God when she still has human form and, worse, when it is a female body. She describes the superficiality of appearance, and of the leaders reluctance to accept her. Would the sandalwood cease its fragrance when its cut into pieces? Would a piece of gold, even when cut and heated, lose its luster? Would the sugar cane lose its sweetness when it is squeezed within a press and then heated? Prabhu pays her his ultimate compliment: Your body is female in appearance, but you mind is merged with God. In fact it was here onwards that she became Akka, an elderly sister. By her profound scholarship and burning fire of devotion she soon carved for herself an exalted position in the Anubhava Mantap, the unique Assembly of Saints there. Channa-Basava, the right hand man of Basava says, â€Å"Real greatness is only to be seen in Mahadeviakka, who has lost all sense of duality and has merged herself in the infinite. † 3. HER INTENSE LONG ING FOR THE LORD Even in her childhood, she used to worship Siva with great concentration. She took her early education under Shivagamacharya and started writing vachanas at the earliest age. Even at her early age of adolescences, Mahadevi’s devotion for Chenna Mallkarjuna was so deep and passionate that she did not play with the worldly toys like other children. On the other hand as she wrote in one of her Vachanas: â€Å"I wash away like the black soil in rain I slip and shifts like the sand, Anguished in dream I start awake, And burn like the fire in the forge, Comrades have I none in my woe O Cenna Mallikarjuna, do Thou grant me of Thy mercy A body that is not grappled by the groping hand, And the ecstasy that comes of union without uniting. † Akka’s whole life was a journey in search of her eternal lover, Cenna Mallikarjuna, whom she saw in her dream and followed in reality. During this course of divine frenzy the valleys and mountains were her friends, trees and animals were her companions, sun and the moon were the guiding spirits, whom she earnestly asked for the help in searching her beloved. Mahadevi, endowed with innate love and devotion for Lord Siva, had developed for the beginning a great aversion for worldly life. In one of her Vachanas she says, â€Å"O Lord! Without realizing Thee, I am dying in the meshes of my own self-willed desires, like a silk-worm perishing in the cocoon of silk spun out by it from its own body. Purge my mind, O God! of all evil desires and show me Thy Abode. † â€Å"This evil Samsara has been troubling me day and night. What shall I do my Lord? What shall I do to get rid of this constant harassment? I cannot bear this mental torment any longer. I throw myself entirely at Thy Mercy. Slay me or save me! Let Thy will be done. † Mahadevi had become thoroughly disgusted with the worldly life, and was constantly thinking of God and God alone. She asks, â€Å"Does a peacock ever play on the barren plain? and not on the mountains? Can a swan ever think of loving a dirty streamlet by abandoning a crystal lake? Will a cuckoo ever pour forth its flood of divine rapture anywhere except in a full-blossomed mango tree? Can a bee ever visit a flower without any fragrance? Can my mind be ever attracted by anything else but Thee, my Lord? † Mahadevi thus pines to have a glimpse at the lotus feet of the Lord. â€Å"Just as a caged parrot constantly remembers its brethren outside, so do I ever think of Thee. Call me ‘dear child’ and show me ‘Thy Beauty’†. I am pining for Thee, day and night, My Lord! The dart of Thy Love has been driven deep into my bosom and consequently I have forgotten hunger, thirst and sleep. † Maddened by such an intense Love for the Lord, she began to request everyone she met to show her the pathway to her Lord in this manner: â€Å"Bees, Cuckoos, Parrots, Moonligh t! I have one request for you. Have you seen my Lord? If so will you kindly show Him to me? † 4. HER CHALLENGE TO THE LORD: This extreme intensity of devotion had made her bold enough to throw such a challenge to the Lord: â€Å"Don’t harass me, my Lord, because I am helpless. But mind, I am not a woman to be easily terrified by any amount of pain Thou would inflict. I would live on dry leaves and sleep in the bed of arrows. Pure am I, my Lord! as I have consecrated my body and mind to Thee. † Moreover, she asks: â€Å"Will the sandal give up its fragrance even though it is cut to pieces and rubbed down? Will gold ever be darkened even when it is burnt in the fire? Will the sugarcane abandon its sweetness although it is cut to pieces, made to pass through the press and boiled in the fiery furnace? Don’t reveal my past sins to me my Lord. I will never desist from seeking Thy shelter even if Thou wouldest kill me. She says, â€Å"Thou mayest hear me or not my Lord! I cannot but sing Thy glory. Thou mayest love me or not, I cannot but worship Thee. Thou mayest grace me with Thy presence or not, I cannot but think of embracing Thee. Thou mayest look at me or not, I cannot help casting my loving glance at Thee and sing Thy praises in delight. I s hall worship Thee alone my Lord; and enjoy Divine delight by Thy worship. † 5. CONCEPT OF GOD ACCORDING TO AKKA MAHADEVI She calls her Lord as Chennamallikarjuna. In the book of Mahadevi’s path, as we turn the pages, we find that the image of Chennamallikarjuna changing. With time it merges into a higher and higher concept of the Divine. Only in her earlier years do we notice reference to Siva. Throughout He has remained her Antaryamin to whom she was wedded without a doubt. She says, â€Å"Like treasure hid in the ground, like flavour in the fruit, like gold in the rock and oil in the seed, the Absolute is hidden in the heart. † Further she says, â€Å"I am involved with the one who knows no death, nor decay nor form. He has no one place, nor any boundary, no modifications nor origins. He is Unrestricted to any clan, this casteless one is whom I love. For this reason I am for this man, this Chenna Mallikarjuna. She says, the approach to God must be through ardent love and devotion. She instinctively felt that man can never be fully and wholly fulfilled through self-discipline and knowledge, though self-discipline is arduous and knowledge superior. A more human approach to God lies through pure love and unselfish love which withdraws most of the obstacles that the ego interposes between the divine and the devotee. Akka was shining star in the Bhatki tradition. Her wedding to the Lord Shiva and her undivided heart of love and surrender to Him can be considered as the path of Bhakti Marga. She also considers that the path of action is very much necessary to have genuine devotion of the Lord. In this way she finds no conflict between these two paths rather it is the two sides of the same coin. Her vachans are the best expressed form of Janan Marga, where she tries to share her knowledge of the Lord. For Akka mahadevi to know the Lord and to worship him in mind and to share this knowledge with others in Vachans was a superior way of devotion. So Bhakti Jnana and Krma margas are not mutually exclusive for the Akka, but all three margas lead us to a true devotion to the Lord. 6. SPLENDID VISION OF THE LORD: Through His grace, she had soon the vision of the Lord. â€Å"I had a Vision† she breaks out in rapture, â€Å"I had a splendid vision of the Lord. He had shining golden hair, with a brilliant crown studded (filled) with jewels. A set of pearl-white teeth adorned his beautiful lips that were illumined the seven worlds. At this sight, the famine of my eyes has vanished altogether today. Now that I have seen my Lord Playing with His Primeval Shakti, by identifying Himself with her, I consider my life to have borne fruit. † This vision brought about drastic change in her entire outlook on life. The forest appeared to her to be full of Wish-trees; all the stones assumed to form touch-stones; every place was a place of pilgrimage; the whole world became full of heavenly ambrosia and every pebble she came across was a heavenly jewel. She saw the mountain very much dear to the Lord-Channa Mallikarjuna and entered the forest of Kadali-plantain trees . † In this way she went on having one spiritual experience after another and ultimately realized her identity with the Absolute. She says â€Å"Can the ghee mixed in milk remain separate from it? Who can differentiate heat from the brilliance of Sun? O Lord of Infinite Glory! My scales fell off my eyes as I realized my identity with Thee! † Again she says, â€Å"Whom shall I worship when my body has become Thine? Whom shall I remember when my mind has merged in Thee? Losing myself entirely in Thee, I have completely forgotten Thee with Thee. † 7. LAST DAYS OF HER LIFE Tradition says she left the world in her twenties, entering mahasamadhi (final divine union) with a flash of light. Her travels come to an end when she finds the Kadali vana in the vicinity of the Shrishaila temple. In Kadali vana, Mahadevi matures in nirguna upasana, ready for the final offering. She recognizes the Absolute in all of his creation. The kalpavriksha is all trees. The Sanjeevani is all bushes. All places are teerthas. Ambrosia is contained in all waters. All animals is the covetable golden deer. Every pebble glows as the chintamani gem. Here she also recognizes the paradox of His being in her body, as her very breath becomes His Fragrance. His form becomes hers. Her life force is no different from His very own. No knowledge to acquire, as she now knows Him. Who is there to think, of whom, as individuality ceases to be? This young, defiant and vibrant saint Akka Mahadevi attains Aikyastthala, the highest of the six states of Veerashaivism in the vicinity of the temple to Chennamallikaarjuna and Bhramaraambika. 8. THE CONCEPT OF TRIVEDHI PHILOSOPHY According to the Trivedhi Philosophy, all holiness consisted in due regard for three vital things–Guru, linga and Jangam (the guide; the image; and the fellow religionist). Guru: (personal spiritual master), Guru is the personal spiritual guide who has the knowledge of the path and knows how to guide one on it. A guru is the first cover/guard of soul against the attractions of Maya. He is a concept of awareness. He initiates a novice in the worship of Ista Linga, because he is a model in Ista Linga worship and is Jivanmuktha. He performs three functions: He initiates a person into the faith, trains him and guides him to move towards Aikyasthala (merger with Shiva) A Guru was forbidden to eat flesh, to chew betel or to touch liquor: and he wore a Kempa kavi vastra Linga: (Siva) Linga plays a very key role in the union of Jiva with Siva. Shiva should be worshipped through Ista Linga, which is a symbol of Shiva. The communion between God and a devotee is through Ista Linga. Ista Linga is a small black ball made up of certain prescribed materials kept in a silver casket put around the neck with the help of a thread called shivadara (thread of Lord Shiva). Ista Linga is Shiva Himself. It is universal form of God in a miniature and is the greatest light of the inner most heart which is brought out and shaped into a form by the guru. It is the visible symbol of the invisible energy existing in all beings. The guru places the Ista Linga on ‘Thanu’ (body) ‘Prana’ (life) and ‘Bhava’ (feelings). The linga placed on the thanu is Ista Linga, the linga placed on Prana is Pranalinga, and the linga placed on the Bhava is called Bhavalinga. The practice of wearing Siva linga constantly on their bodies as a mark of devotion and surrender to Lord Siva. Jangama: (an enlightened spiritual guru) Jangama is the realized soul or the perfect one who has already been through the path and knows how to lead one there. A jangama is a liberated man and moves about from place to place to preach the Lingayat Philosophy. He is a moving spirit of the Lord and is personified in the services of the Lord. He leads a simple life, is a man of detachment and is without shelter of his own. He is inseparable from Linga. Guru, Linga and Jangama are treated on equal footing and are rendered with equal respect and reverence. One needs to surrender to them and seek their help in intensifying ones devotion to Siva to obtain his grace and achieve the final union. 9. AKKA THE SOURCE OF WOMEN EMANCIPATION She is a prominent figure in the field of female emancipation. Probably, she may be the first feminist in India as she has been in a constant battle against the established institutions and rituals prevalent in India, in the 12th century. During such time of strife and political uncertainty she launched a movement that made her an inspiration for woman empowerment and enlightenment. The time was marked as height of foolishness of varnashrama dharma which only supported the three upper castes of Hindu society in India and suppressed the shudras and women. It was in the 12the century such a feminist voice, heard from a country like India, where the patriarchal system is at its best. A time when females are forbidden at the school entrance, Akka Mahadevi could take part in many gatherings of learned men at the Anubhavamandapa in Kadal Sangama, to debate philosophy. Though she lived and died young the lines she uttered and the divine life she led keep her as an inseparable part of Indian history in general and the movement of woman’s emancipation in particular. She proves that woman is not the puppet in the hands of male dominant society. On the other hand she is as free as the objects of the world around. She was never contended with the restricted role of a girl at home. Limitations placed on women in the pursuit of education and spirituality was unacceptable for her. She proved herself that a woman has every right and has all the means to pursue a life of an ascetic. Her entire woman’s life with many traumatic experiences is a testimony to the Power of Indelible Courage and Faith. Her renouncement of clothes and disregard for the body, or the acceptance of the life of nunnery was not an ordinary step in 12th century. Woman was not yet considered as equivalent to man. Her individual identity was under crisis. Even the great thinker and philosopher like Allamaprabhu questioned her unusual way of life. Akka becomes a distinctive phenomenon in the human history not merely by her style of dressing or unusual way of arguing. Her distinct pathway through the world, which took her to the climax point of rationalism, establishes her as an ever-shining star of boldness. Her denial of the riches and comforts of the palace and the amputations of the domestic bonds reminds one of Buddha. Her ideal of social and gender equality, propagated in the 12th century had become the creed of higher education in and out of Karnataka. Along with Basaveshwara, she was also one of the socialist reformers who spoke out against the caste system. Among her 315 vachanas, considered as sacred scriptures by the Kannadigas, one proclaims this message: â€Å"Unrestricted to any clan, this caste less one is whom I love for this reason, I’m for this man. † Akka Mahadevi is even remembered and revered all over Karnataka as a seer-poet and a social reformer. You can see a number of educational and charitable institutions all through the State, named after Akka. Akka Seva Samajas, the charitable institutions in the State, pursue the same goal Akka Mhadevi has propagated – uplifting the status of the girl children. They work for the destitute girls and down trodden women in their three branches at Kumara Park, Rajaji Nagar, Rajarajeswary Nagar along with the first one established at Bangalore. The proceedings of the Samajas are inspired by the life and teachings of Akka Mahadevi who burned up as a flash of light in the caves of Sreeshailam. 10. AKKA MAHADEVI A MYSTIC SAINT Akka Madhavi is no doubt a great Bhakti saints of the 12th century, she experienced a call within, that no other pre-occupation distract her, in her path to the Lord Shiva. Unlike other girls, the very desire for a family and married life, and other worldly pleasure and comfort she considers these nothing compared to her devotion to the Lord Shiva. Her poems or Vachnas are the spontaneous overflow of her love for the Lord. Her cloths, beauty and ornaments were the love and devotion to the Lord. This intense devotion and renunciation of worldly affairs made her a great mystic of the time. She had an experience of the Lord in the heart, this basic experience led her to experience Lord in everything: in the beautiful nature, mountains valleys and everywhere. She finds her home in the nature and everything in it was her companion. In union with the nature and all the being she searched for the Lord and she experienced Him together with all beings. This shows that in totality she experienced and worshipped the Lord in the Universe. This is the another aspect of her mysticism. There is a massage for all, who search the Lord with the sincere heart that God can be experience in our simple and ordinary life situations and surroundings. There is no need of going to high mountains like Himalayas to search for the Lord; he is here within us and in the nature. Akka madhavi experienced this truth from her child hood itself, and she could experience more intensively and more clearly in her later stages of life. She expresses the unity between her and the Absolute in the following Vachana: I do not say it is the Linga. I do not say it oneness with the Linga. I do not say it is the Merging, I do not say it is the Parting I do not say it has Happened. I do not say it is to Be. I do not say it is I. I do not say it is You. The mysticism of the Akka is in par with the existing theological understanding of the experience of the Lord. There is no conflict with the tradition and philosophical thinking of the time. Man’s search for the Lord in the cosmos with the nature and created beings is very much acceptable to the mystics of all times. The out flow of the heart’s desire and her love she expresses in her poems and Vachana is a real treasure and guide to seek the Lord, for the many generation to come. Akka mahadevi is somewhat negative about the concept of body. The bodily beauty was a liability for her in her short life. She calls this body as the site of dirt, lust, greed and rage. This may be because of her experience with Kaushika and in Anubhava Mantapa. According to her the body and its temptations are the primary causes which come on the way in ones union with the Lord. In this way in her thought we can see the clear cut distinction between body as something bad which belongs to the world and soul in something sacred which helps one to live a holy life. 11. CONCLUSION Mystics have a double aspect in their life. They are often perceived as rebel in a cultural social ethos. They refuse to walk or to follow the manmade laws and tradition. They have a fine intellect and sharp perception of divine reality. They guide people in the new path towards the absolute. They are courageous, creative and enthusiastic in walking the new unknown path with full trust and confidence. This unusual way of life and their very courage novelty and creativity make them to be rejected in the society, but later they are hailed and accepted in the society. Akka Mahadevi was one among such saints who was intoxicated by Shiva Shakti. Because of her ascetic way of life she became true Shakti and all other powers of tradition and culture she rejected. This way led to her to the spiritual heights making her a mystic. Thus we can see that akka mahadevi had two aspects i. e. initial rejection as rebel and later acceptance as mystic saint. Nobody knows exactly for how many years Akka Mahadevi lived. According to one popular belief she lived only twenty-five years. Within this small span of life the achievement she did, the area she had covered from Udatadi to Srisail and the great spiritual personalities she met is something amazing. No other Indian social activist achieves the parallel position with Akka in this regard. It is sure that physically she lived a very short life but spiritually she did surpass the common level. The historians are of the opinion that Akka only in a true sense represents the whole vachana movement, which is in swing till the time present. The vachanas she wrote is a gem of divine thought. These few Vachanas of Mahadevi gives us the insights into the unique psychology of God –intoxication of this blessed saint. Even linguistically they achieve an everlasting place. Each phase of her life was a step towards the emancipation of not only of womanhood but also of the mankind. She was sure footed in her radical combat with the age-old norms of the society. She lived for the life enlightened and the life divine. Akka is a guiding spirit behind all the women activists, irrespective of the age and space. One should be thankful to the womankind, which has given â€Å"the Sappho of Greece, the Theresa of Christianity, the Lalleshwari of Kashmir, the Rubia of Arabia, the ‘Andal’ of Tamilnadu, the Meera of Rajasthan. † No doubt all they are incomparable individuals in their life and achievement. BIBLIOGRAPHY Deshpande, M. S. â€Å"Akka Mahadevi: St. Mira of Karnataka. † Pathway to God: A Journal of Spiritual Life 10, 1 (November 1975), 21-26. Hampana, Kamala. Akka Mahadevi. Bangalore: Sapna Book House, 2002. ambahouse. org/akkamahadevi. html ourkarnataka. com/religion/akka_mathapati. htm scrollindia. com/women-zone/akka-mahadevi-kannada-seer-poet. Patil, S. H. Community Dominance and Political Modernization. Delhi: A Mittal Publication, 2002 Shastry, G. V. Akka Mahadeviya Vachanagalu. Gadag: Paru Prakashan, 1999. Umadevi, S. Akka Mahadeviyavara Vachanagalu. Hubli: Lalit Prakashana, 200.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Smooth operations - Emphasis

Smooth operations Smooth operations There is a corner of Emphasis Towers dedicated solely to the behind-the-scenes team known as Operations. We are the stage-hands to the trainers thespians; the gaffers to Client Relations stage directors. And while we may be hidden away like Quasimodo in his bell tower, we do have the pleasure of knowing it would be hard to pull off the show without us. It is, of course, Client Relations who will venture out to meet you, get to know you and your business, and discover just how Emphasis can help to make your documents shine; our course developers who design a programme to move and motivate you to be the best business writer possible; and our trainers who will analyse your work and deliver the goods on the day. Were squirreled away in the midst of all this, gathering up the vital pieces of information like so many acorns for winter. And we like to follow our own companys advice in Operations Corner: Well put the reader first by presenting you with only what you need to know to get everyone to where they need to be. We have the whys and hows, so well just ask for your whos, wheres and whens. We helpfully punctuate this with requests that guide you through: well elicit writing samples; extract dates, timings, attendee and venue information and you wont feel a thing. Well build a logical structure from one end of the process to the other to the delegate list we add samples, to the samples we add graphs; well print and bind the manuals, copy and file worksheets; well send the trainer to you with everything they need to address all your business-writing needs. On the day of your course, by the first chorus of: So thats how to use an apostrophe! we may not even be a speck in your memory. But then a good operations team is like good writing: efficient, effective, invisible.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Appropriateness, Reinforcement, Preferences and Transformation Essay Example for Free

Appropriateness, Reinforcement, Preferences and Transformation Essay According to Eunson (2006, p.15) there are four main criteria to be considered when choosing the medium/s of communication to best articulate an argument: Appropriateness, Reinforcement, Preferences and Transformation. Select one of the criteria and discuss its importance to a communication situation. Any successful communication process requires the presence of a message, appropriate medium   and the desired message’s effect on the receiver.   Ã‚  To effect success in communication, it is important to use a suitable medium based on the Preferences criterion. Modern technologies have greatly facilitated human communication. However, as Priestley’s Paradox illustrates, people get to actually communicate less as communication technologies further advance (Eunson 2006, p.4). Hence, for effective communication, it is more important to consider the message and the effect of that message on the receiver (Eunson 2006, p.7). The successful transfer of message and its effect, however, largely depends on the communication mode used or â€Å"preferred†. The medium is crucial to the effect of a message because as emphasized by Marshall McLuhan (Lister 2003), â€Å"societies have always been shaped more by the nature of the media† . In other words, the medium is the message. A case in point would be a Human Resource Department in an office where the HR Manager normally ‘prefers’ communicating with his staff through memos and e-mail notifications. But being a smart manager, he or she will not hesitate to utilize other media as needed, according to the importance of the message and the desired effect to the recipients. He or she may ‘prefer’ to personally discuss an individual’s unsatisfactory ‘Performance Assessment Report’, earlier sent as is via individual e-mail, through   one-on-one review. The richness of media (Daft & Lengel 1986, p.557) effected by direct face-to-face discussion is ‘preferred’ to the e-mail channel, which in this case plays a secondary role as preparatory medium of documentation. Herein, interpersonal communication appropriate to a small group (Baker, Barrett & Roberts 2002, p.11), is considered and selected to amplify the Report’s â€Å"warning† content with the goal of effecting the desired change in the staffer’s behaviour. Exploring â€Å"Preferences† in choosing media is vital to effectively convey the message. Since the medium, which helps shape the content, is mostly the message itself and that the message’s effect on the receiver is affected by the medium, selecting the suitable channel from a range of Preferences becomes crucial to any effective communication. Baker, E. Barrett, M. & Roberts, L 2002, Working Communication , John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd., Milton Qld. Daft, R. L. and Lengel, R. H. 1986 â€Å"Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness and Structural Design,† Management Sci. , Vol. 32, No.5, pp. 554–571. Eunson, B . 2006, Communicating in the 21 st Century , John Wiley & Sons, Australia Ltd., Milton Qld. Lister, M 2003, New Media: A Critical Introduction , Routledge, London. Appropriateness, Reinforcement, Preferences and Transformation. (2017, Mar 01).

Friday, October 18, 2019

Merger, Acquisition, and International Strategies Essay - 13

Merger, Acquisition, and International Strategies - Essay Example I clear separation must b made between mergers and consolidation. In the latter, both companies lose their identities and come together to form one major corporation which a completely new identity (Gomes, 2011). Mergers are regulated by the state laws as they are likely to eliminate competition leading to creation of oligopolistic firms which may collude to form cartels that may tend to harm the economy. Mergers and acquisitions are beneficial to the economy in the sense that they can bring about better approaches to management of the firm. They lead to economies of scale which has the effect of increasing production, reducing operation costs leading to decrease in the selling price which favors the consumers of various commodities. A merger can enable a business owner to sell the firm to someone who is already familiar with the industry and who would be in a better position to pay the highest price. Less competition will also mean low risks to the owners of the merged firms (Cardel, 1998). There are basically three categories of mergers which are based on the competitive relationships that exist between the merging firms. Vertical merger is a form of merger in which one firm acquires a customer or a key supplier of another firm. Horizontal mergers is where one firm acquires or takes over another firm that manufactures and sells an identical product in the same geographical location in a bid to lower competition that was originally existing between the two firms. Conglomerate mergers are those that the merging companies do not have any evident relationship between them. This paper takes an in-depth analysis on two public corporations in the United States in which one has a history of mergers and acquisitions and operated internationally and the other does not bear any history in relation mergers and acquisition and only operates within the nation. The two companies are Apple that has a long

Financial reporting analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Financial reporting analysis - Essay Example Under this ratio, a business’s efficiency to use its material and labour is analysed with the residue of the revenue and the costs reflecting the gross profit. Net Profit Margin: This ratio is almost similar to the Gross Profit ratio with a further extension of scrutinising the administration and other selling costs – resulting in the net profit for an organisation. The ratio displays the net profit of a company as a percentage of its revenue. Return on Capital Employed: This is an important measure of evaluating a company’s profitability. It measures the efficiency of a firm towards utilising the funds invested in it (Fridson & Alvarez, 2002). Liquidity Ratios evaluate a company’s ability to pay off its debts as soon as they fall due. These ratios are used to analyse a company’s ability to continue its operation in the long run. Bankruptcy is one major issue that is highlighted while analysing the liquidity ratios. There are two main types of liquidity ratios: Current Ratio: This ratio assesses a company’s ability to pay off its short term liabilities with its current assets. Usually the benchmark is to have twice the amount of current assets as compared to the current liabilities but this varies within different industries. Quick Ratio: Quick ratio analyses a company’s ability to pay off its current liabilities with its most liquid assets i.e. excluding costs – which takes time to convert into cash. The usual standard is to keep a 1:1 ratio (Helfert, 1997). The Gearing or the leverage ratios give an insight to the risk faced by an investor within a company. This risk is usually affiliated with the financing of the company whereby a firm which is highly financed via debt is considered to be a risky venture for potential investors. Since both Essakane plc and Westwood plc are not hugely affected with any major debt financing issues, the gearing ratios for the company may not be analysed. Market value ratios

Material Science Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Material Science - Research Paper Example The first group encompasses materials with reduced dimensions in the form of nanometer-sized constituent part, thin wires or thin films. The second group includes materials in which the nanometer-sized microstructure is restricted to a thin external region of a bulk material. PVD, CVD, ion embedding and laser beam treatments are the usually used processes to change the chemical structure or atomic structure of solid planes on a nanometer scale. The third groups of bulk solids are with a nanometer-scale microstructure. Materials with a nanometer-dimensional microstructure are named Nanostructured Materials (NsM) (Gleiter). The fusion, classification and meting out of such NsM are developing and fast rising arena denoted as nanotechnology (Grossard).Since the material goods of solids rest on the dimension, atomic structure and chemical configuration, NsM show fresh properties due to many effects. Dimensional effects result if the typical dimension of the structuring blocks of the micro structure is abridged to the point wherever critical length scales of physical phenomena develop analogous.Variation of the dimension of a NsM contains of thin needle-shaped crystallites, simply two or one aspect of the building blocks come to be analogous with the length scale of a physical phenomenon. In these circumstances the NsM come to be a two or one-dimensional system pertaining to this phenomenon. The second case of nanostructured alloys outcomes if the crystallites of a NsM have dissimilar chemical compositions.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Analysis of a Joke Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Analysis of a Joke - Essay Example Although we think of the joke as a cultural constant, it is a form of humor that comes and goes with the rise and fall of civilizations.†1 The joke that was chosen was the following: A doctor walked into a bank. Preparing to endorse a check, he pulled a rectal thermometer out of his shirt pocket and tried to write with it. Realizing his mistake, he looked at the thermometer with annoyance and said, ‘Well thats great, just great... some asshole’s got my pen.’2 The category that this particular joke probably belongs in is the scatological category, because it deals with a reference to the rectum. It’s unsure why, but these types of jokes can be particularly compelling—because excrement seems to be something that humans find very funny. Of course, a simpler way to say that is to just say, â€Å"Poo is funny.† But why? What is so funny about our own feces? Fundamentally, excrement is elemental. If we didn’t have it, there would be no jokes. But why is humor about feces, farts, and, in fact—the entire range of human bodily functions, fodder for jokes? One must wonder. What makes this particular joke funny is that, through a play on words, we imagine the pen being stuck in some patient’s behind. That seems pretty funny that there would be a mix-up like that. Thus, there is a play on words and we find this joke, for the most part, funny—if not at least a bit crude. ... Now, it’s not using very polite language either. This is where the aggressive element demonstrates itself. It’s not a polite joke, and it probably wouldn’t be polite to share in mixed company, unless the mixed company were to be as foul-mouthed as the language used in the joke. Although the joke’s language is not overly offensive, it does say something about the medical profession as well. Doctors are sometimes inept, and it’s easy to make jokes about doctors and lawyers because they both have high-stress professions. Humor can be a wonderful way to deflect problems, as well as provide a platform for expressing one’s personality. This is why comedians like Jerry Seinfeld did especially well with his show Seinfeld, and why, subsequently, comedians like Larry David did so well with his show Curb Your Enthusiasm. Many times, these humorous shows have something in common—they use real-life situations as fodder for something called situatio nal comedy (or a sitcom). Situational comedies bring real-life problems to light. Who could ever forget the following bits: â€Å"Are you sponge-worthy?† â€Å"She’s got man hands!† Pig Man. The Soup Nazi. â€Å"You double-dipped the chip.† â€Å"Serenity now!† â€Å"Give me that, you old bag!† Who will ever forget these classic moments in Seinfeld history? These, and a series of other vignettes in his subsequent spin-off hit HBO comedy series--Curb Your Enthusiasm--were brought to you by none other than comedian, writer, actor, and executive producer Larry David. Larry David was the head writer and executive producer of Seinfeld, winning him a Primetime Emmy Award for Best Outstanding comedy series in the run of the show’s fourth year. Seinfeld made

Discuss water - the sea, the hurricane, the flood - as natural and Essay

Discuss water - the sea, the hurricane, the flood - as natural and symbolic forces that are associated with the Zeitoun, the protagonist, and the major conflicts in the narrative - Essay Example According to Zeitoun, water is a natural and symbolic force because the hurricane caused the worst natural disaster ever recorded in the American history. However, according to Eggers, the disaster was not entirely natural. The book gives the finest investigations of qualified journalists who did their research during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. According to the book, New Orleans became vulnerable to the disaster as a result of human error (Eggers 67). This is because the federal and the state authorities responded inadequately to the disaster. Many individuals acted alone. This is because most individuals were ignorant and selfish. The protagonist in the book is Zeitoun. He is a Muslim who was raised in Syria. He worked at the sea of a fisherman for twenty years. While working, he travelled across the universe and finally settled in the US. When the Hurricane Katrina approached New Orleans in 2005, his wife and children shifted to Baton Rouge. Zeitoun remained in the city to watch over their home, rental properties and the ongoing job sites. As a result of the storm, most houses in their neighborhood were flooded to the second floor. This made Zeitoun to start moving around in a canoe. He distributed the supplies that he had to his neighbors who were in need. He also moved them to higher grounds and saved dogs that had been abandoned (Eggers 109). The major conflict that arises in the narrative is the arrest of Zeitoun when he had not done any wrong. The National Guardsmen of the US army arrested and took him into custody on his property. They accused him of being a terrorist and treated him brutally. While under the custody of the National Guardsmen, Zetoun became a victim of physical and verbal abuse. Later, he was charged of looting $500. Contrary to the normal amount of the bail charged for the crime, Zeitoun was charged ten times more (Eggers

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Farm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Farm - Essay Example Corn farming may seem to be an uncomplicated endeavor but this work entails a lot of hard work and sacrifices and it poses a variety of influences to the life of a society as a whole. This chapter gives a narrative account about a farm in Iowa specifically in a place named Greene County (Pollan, 2006). This farm is situated in a part described as having some of the richest soil in the world, a layer of cakey alluvial loam nearly two feet thick (Pollan, 2006, p. 33). The narrator in the story is driving the tractor of one of the farmers mentioned who is named George Naylor (Pollan, 2006). The principal crop that is being planted by Naylor is corn (Pollan, 2006). It is described how corn is planted by farmers throughout the years and the different government policies and innovations with regards to farming are also given consideration in this chapter. The chapter is worth reading for a variety of reasons. First, it is very informative for the reason that it tells the life of a farmer, which does not only focus on the typical life of a farmer wherein he plants and reaps his harvest. Conversely, the life of the farmer, Naylor is rooted with a variety of events that contributed to the manner how he manages his farm (Pollan, 2006). Second, it stirs up the interest of readers towards farming which for others may just be plain and simple but it portrays that there is more to farming than just planting and harvesting. Farming is highlighted to be in the bloodstream of Naylor because his father too was a farmer (Pollan, 2006). Corn farming is full of intricacies for the reason that a farmer must choose the right breed to plant in his soil and find means to increase his harvest such as choosing the right pesticide to drive pests away which could be detrimental to his crops, choose the right fertilizer that will make his crops stouter and the strategy to

Discuss water - the sea, the hurricane, the flood - as natural and Essay

Discuss water - the sea, the hurricane, the flood - as natural and symbolic forces that are associated with the Zeitoun, the protagonist, and the major conflicts in the narrative - Essay Example According to Zeitoun, water is a natural and symbolic force because the hurricane caused the worst natural disaster ever recorded in the American history. However, according to Eggers, the disaster was not entirely natural. The book gives the finest investigations of qualified journalists who did their research during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. According to the book, New Orleans became vulnerable to the disaster as a result of human error (Eggers 67). This is because the federal and the state authorities responded inadequately to the disaster. Many individuals acted alone. This is because most individuals were ignorant and selfish. The protagonist in the book is Zeitoun. He is a Muslim who was raised in Syria. He worked at the sea of a fisherman for twenty years. While working, he travelled across the universe and finally settled in the US. When the Hurricane Katrina approached New Orleans in 2005, his wife and children shifted to Baton Rouge. Zeitoun remained in the city to watch over their home, rental properties and the ongoing job sites. As a result of the storm, most houses in their neighborhood were flooded to the second floor. This made Zeitoun to start moving around in a canoe. He distributed the supplies that he had to his neighbors who were in need. He also moved them to higher grounds and saved dogs that had been abandoned (Eggers 109). The major conflict that arises in the narrative is the arrest of Zeitoun when he had not done any wrong. The National Guardsmen of the US army arrested and took him into custody on his property. They accused him of being a terrorist and treated him brutally. While under the custody of the National Guardsmen, Zetoun became a victim of physical and verbal abuse. Later, he was charged of looting $500. Contrary to the normal amount of the bail charged for the crime, Zeitoun was charged ten times more (Eggers

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Sales force automation Essay Example for Free

Sales force automation Essay Introduction. Sales Force Automation is a technique of using software to automate the business tasks of sales, including order processing, contact management, information sharing, inventory monitoring and control, order tracking, customer management, sales forecast analysis and employee performance evaluation(Thomas, M.S Michael, S.M 1996). This revolution that is sweeping through society is changing the nature of selling. For last 150 years, traditional selling process bases on the two ways communications, that is salespeople to customers, customers to salespeople. Such face-to-face selling or in-person selling can require a lot of time, energy, and expense, but the payoff can be tremendous. Despite all of the new high-tech alternatives, an in-person sales presentation is the single most powerful marketing tool in use today. National television advertising, telemarketing, e-mail, or print advertising have nowhere near the ability to motivate a particular customer to actually place an order as does face-to-face selling (David, G. H Mckee, D 1999). Discussion. Face to face communication in sales force. Social trends point to the increasing need for face-to-face communication in efforts to change peoples attitudes and behaviors. That communication is simply a method of sending a message from one person or group of persons to another, which the communication process is the most natural and the most familiar. It is direct, immediate and responsive. We can perceive reactions at once and can modify our own behavior to clarify the message. It is vital importance to salespeople whom use this communication tool with their potential buyers of a product with the intention of making a sale; also they can focus initially on developing a relationship with the potential customers with an attempt to close the sale'(Pyle, J. 2004). Does face to face is the best way to communicate? In the small business, Personal selling involves face-to-face interaction between buyer and seller, which is a very important part of a stores effect to communicate with its customers. Sellers are able to have exclusive contact with the buyer and clearly articulate the benefits of the product or service. And buyers are able to get personal attention and have their questions answered fully (Personal selling, 2005). It creates a mutually beneficial situation in which both buyer and seller feel they are meeting their objectives. During face to face communication, one essential part of effective communication is feedback. Only in personal selling does the potential for a clear feedback channel exist. Even cashiers are salespeople in the sense that they convey a message to the customer. As salespeople interact with customers, they not only hear verbal responses, but also see smiles, frowns, and nods. The verbal responses and the nonverbal reactions provide feedback. These responses help salespeople modify the sales message to the specific needs of the customer (Personal selling, 2005). A successful selling can be made via face to face communication because it is an effective strategy that both salespeople and customer can see each others characteristics, body language, gestures, facial expression, intonation, or words to make a sufficient judgment, and it is also a powerful selling method for building a stronger relationship with the potential customer. Unquestionably, the face-to-face communication that takes place in the personal selling situation that can (1) clearly identify and translate product features into benefits and satisfactions that solve customers problems and fill their needs; (2) pinpoint the customers uncertainties about purchasing and provide knowledge and information to reduce these uncertainties; (3) provide specific rational psychological reasons that help the customer make a purchasing decision; and (4) build trust between organizations and its potential customer (The Importance of face to face selling, 2003). One research point out that most managers think that Face-to-face sales method can carefully explain the new process or product to their customers (Martin, C .2005). However, the major disadvantage of personal selling through face to face communication is the cost of employing a sales force. Sales people are expensive. In addition to the basic pay package, a business needs to provide incentives to achieve sales, such as commission, bonus arrangements, and the equipment , such as car, travel and mobile phone, to make sales calls (Personal selling, 2005). Moreover, there is not a cost-effective way of  reaching a large audience in now faster society. A sales person can only call on one customer at a time. In other words, salespeople need to go to the prospective customer in order to demonstrate or illustrate the particulars about the product or service. For reaching a large customer; salespeople will be taking a lot of time to achieve the goal (The Importance of Good Communication, 2005). Sales force automation- SFA. Following by the rapid and continuous drop in the price of computing and the businesses are increasingly global that joined with advances in communications technology; the structure and process of selling have altered the competitive environment (David, G. H Mckee, D 1999) . Technology makes salespeople more effective and productive because it allows them to provide accurate and current information to customers during sales presentations. Sales force automation (SFA) implies that technology can be used to speed up previously inefficient operations of a company, which the Internet and related technology have affected the personal selling process (Thomas, M.S Michael, S.M 1996 Yudkowsky, C, 1998). Product information on Web sites is available to customers and prospects. In the past, salespeople delivered this information to the customer by face to face. The Internet releases salespeople to focus on the most important aspects of their job, such as building long-term relationships wit h customers and focusing on new accounts. Information is shared among users in every department that contact with the customer. Also, information sharing promotes more effective channel partnership. In fact, salespeople use computers to connect them (through the Internet) to their own companys databases when they are out on sales calls. This gives them the ability to provide the customer with extensive, relevant information almost immediately (Sapru, P, 2005). It reduces administrative tasks for salespeople and makes them better prepared for every sales call. A successfully implemented SFA solution can improve the productivity and efficiency of the sales team, which can result in higher customer satisfaction and higher revenue per customer of a company (Thomas, M.S Michael, S.M 1996). Salespeople become intelligence agents in the field when they feed that information directly into the data resources shared by the  rest of the sales force and the company at large. SFA is becoming vital selling tools that can be used to communicate through a global basis; also, it is a most cost- effective way that the business can reach its large customer globally. According to the estimated, the advantages of using sales automated technology can increase at a rate of 40% annually include the ability to generate sophisticated multimedia presentations, to create internal communication systems, to monitor sales rep progress, and to keep databases of customer histories (Yudkowsky, C, 1998). In the book Virtual Selling, the author indicated that SFA is rapidly rising to the forefront salespeople of the business computing market (Thomas, M.S Michael, S.M, 1996) Conclusion. Marketing communication tools definitely has been changed. Sales force automation provides a cost-effective way of a companys salespeople expenditures, innovations in opportunity, immediately contact, activity, and account management as well as automatic quoting, product configuration, research, and reach a large customer (Yudkowsky, C, 1998). However, face to face selling can be more successful to reach peoples heart and build a stronger relationship in accomplish a selling objective. The problem is not which mode of communication is used; it is the quantity and quality of the produce/service content need to be considered. There is no one way to communicate well; each method has strengths and weaknesses. It is the balance of the methods, using their strengths and avoiding the weaknesses that will make good communications. As selling a car, house and insurance, face to face communication is a crucial requirement that salespeople need to build the trust, product value and satisfy customer needs in the entire selling process (Selling a car, 2004 Business Family Champion, 2005). Although SFA has changed the way of both selling and purchasing process, customers have more choice than ever before, as their can choice any thing by the click of a mouse. Yet face to face communication is the only way that salespeople can build a real trust, and interpersonal relationship in humans life.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Supply Chains In The Fmcg Sector Commerce Essay

Supply Chains In The Fmcg Sector Commerce Essay The cadbury is the company which is in production of delicious chocolates the main and famous products of cadbury are cadbury dairy milk, cadbury gems, cadbury 5 star, cadbury Celebrations, Temptations, and Gems. In Milk Food drinks segment, Cadburys main product Bournvita is the leading Malted Food Drink in the country. Cadbury is one of the biggest confecionary company in the world established in 1783. . The operations of cadbury started in india in the year 1948 in the name of cadbury india. At early stage cadbury india was importing the chololates and repacked them before the actual distribustion started to take place. With the popularty and increase in demand now cadbury india owned its maunfacturing unit in thane, pune (induri), gwalior(malanpur), baddi(himachal pradesh) and banglore.its main sales office are located in the new delhi, mumbai, kolkata, and chennai. The corporate offices is in mumbai,wheras the cadbury provides 60000 employment opportunities in over 200 countries including india. Components of supply chain: For making delious cadbury dairy milk and other chocolates the ingridents used as follows: The following incredients are used in the prepartion of the decious cadbury to make the final product of dairy milk the cadburuy needs the raw material which is shown in the table. To full fill this basic requirement cadbury india takes help of local vendors. They do agreemnts or contracts on annual basis and then local vendors supply them this raw materials as per requirements.apart from the cocoa beans which are extermely important for aromatic taste for the cadbury dairy milk it is imported The pure variety of the Criollo tree is found mainly in its native Equador and Venezuela. The seeds are of finer quality than those of the Forastero variety. The actual production process of cadury dairy milk: Harvesting: It is important to prevent cocoa bean from rotting. To pevent those beans from rotting the fruit is actully opened at a frementation site or at a plantation site. Fermentation: After the process of the harvesting the further procedure starts with the fermentation process .it is a decisive in the production of high quality of raw cocoa. Drying; Frist few steps are really important in the making of the delious cadbury.raw cocoa beans conatins lots of water in it .it is important to remove the all water from the cocoa beans to prevent them from rotting . in the drying process, the beans are actually dried in the natural environment where the beans actuallydried in the open air or a sum soaked ground. Cleaning: In this process cocoa beans goes with the cleaning process in which wood particels, jute fibres , sand and finest dust particels are also taken away. To do this process effectively cadbury uses the vaccum equipment. Roasting: Roasting is the actual process which is designed to developed aroma the roasting process is done in the furnace which is 10 feet high above the ground level and where the tempreture is set for the 130 degree celius. Crushing and sheeling of beans: Roasted beans are now broked into medium and small sized pieces as per the requirement in the crushing machine. Blending : It is very important part of the production process. In this process, beans aare weighed and blended according to the special recipies and requirements. In this process the various kinds of cocoa beans which constitute different taste and flavours are mixed together with each other in required balanced ratios. Grinding: In the process of grinding cocoa beans are progrrounded by the equipment which is mainly designed for the this process . in the process the cocoa beans are fed on the rollers where they are ground into a paste which is fine in nature. Because of the heat generation it leads into the pressure an fricition because of which cocoa butter is formed which approxmetely 50% of the bean. Contain bens is melt in this process which is in thick liquid mixture. Then the cocoa paste is prepared with the its natural stong odour , but during the process of cooling it bitter taste gradually sets down. At this stage of production, process gets divided into the two sab parts where as in the 1st part paste is taken into large press machine which extract the butter from it . and the 2nd part cosists of blending and refining processe during which some part gets converted into cocoa powder. Cocoa powder: After the pressing of the cocoa butter cocoa cakes which are left with the 10%-20%proportion of fat. The proportion of fat is depends on the compression intensity. Those cakes are crushed again and with the various stages passses with the manufacturing dark aromotic chocolate obtained which is generally used in the prepartion of drinks . Rolling : This process is completely depends on the design of the rolling mills which are genrally in three or five which are in vertically mounted steel rollers rotate in the opposite direction with the heavy presuation technique the tiney partices of cocoa and sugar down to size of 30 microns where as 1 micron is equal to 1000th part of a milimeter. Packaging of the cadbury: Cadbury installed the new machinery of 25 crs which gives them the better packging for all cadbury product. All cadbury chololates product are sealed with theplastic wrapper inside with the foil . they launched a newely flow packaging system which gives high level of resistances from bad environment and prevents the quality of the product. Distribustion startegy of cadbury: No of distributors: 2100 distributors with the contract of 45000 retailers across india. Retail outlets: shops and supermakets restaurants and cafà © cinemas and theatres theme parks. Installed coolers and vans : Cadbury installed a coolers and vans with the it distribustion network. This system helps in the season of the summer as it helps to prevent quality of cadbury. Part :2 Different invovled in the supply chain of cadbury: All cocoa operation done by cadbury is carried in tamil nadu. Generally cadbry india make a contract with the local framers to supply them a cocoa for the production of the all cadbury products. All items used in the production process of cadbury are very perishable in nature it cant be stored for longer time not even two to three days also if the raw material is not used in time then the product may hae bad and unhealty effects. RISK INVOLVED IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND METHODS TO OVER COME THEM. In todays dynamic world the manufactured product of a company faces many risks. Supply change management is a very vital process managed by the company. It involves all the process stating from warehousing of the goods till making the product available to the final consumer. The risk involved or the unexpected events posed to supply chain are as follows:- Risk involved in material handling: handling of finished goods till the time they reach the final consumer is a very critical process. Any miss handling of the product might damage it and will lead to loss to the company. If the employee is not efficient in transporting the goods from one point to another or is not well equipped or lack in knowledge in handling the product he can cause damage to the goods. Risk involved in storage: when the goods are ready they need to be stored in warehouses till the time the distributors can collect them. When the goods are placed in warehouses they need to be counted and stocked. If the stock is not recorded properly it can lead to loss to the company and can also lead to conflicts between the distributor and the company. The warehouses where the goods are stored should be according to the requirement of the type of goods manufactured. If the product is perishable and if the cold storage does not have a power back up then if there is a power cut the goods might get damaged. Risk involved in transportation: transportation of the goods is a very important step involved in the supply chain management. When the goods are transporting they are openly exposed to different types of risk such as vehicle accident, robbery, road hazards, etc. Risk involved in demand forecasting: when a company invests in a particular product it forecasts what will be its demand in the market. Based on that data it then manufactures a product. Forecasting is a big gamble and hence is also a very big risk. If the forecasting is happens to be right the company enjoys good profit but if the forecasting fails the company faces heavy losses. Risk involved in material supply: To manufacture a product on time it is very important that the raw materials reach the factory on time. If the supplier does not provide the raw materials on time the production process will stop or be delayed. This involves risk of time. If the order is not finished on time the distributors might not buy the product and the company will then face very heavy loss. Hence supply of raw materials on time is very important and risky factor in supply chain management. Risk involved in customer service: building a good customer relationship is a key to the success of the company. If a customer is not satisfied with a product performance and needs to replace or repair it he needs to be provided with a customer care unit. When the customer returns a product the process of reverse logistics starts. If there is inefficiency in delivery the customer a good service he might never turn back to the company again. Hence the service provided to is not satisfactory it faces the risk of losing a valuable customer. Risk involved in packaging of the product: proper packaging of the product is very important. If the product is of perishable nature and is not properly packed it is exposed to the polluted environment which can stale the product before reaching the customer. The risk here is to the goodwill of the company. For non perishable goods if the goods are not properly packed it might be difficult to handle and transport them. If the transporter is not able to handle the goods properly he might damage the product. The risk involved here is companys cost of production. METHODS TO OVERCOME THESE RISKS Insurance: In todays world insurance is like a boon to the manufacturers. There are different types of insurance which a manufacturer can do to avoid losses due to different factors such as damage or loss in transportation of the goods, warehousing of the goods, etc. Insurance gives the courage to the manufacturer to take risk in business. Packaging: if the product is properly packed the manufacturer can avoid the risk of damage to the product through environment or improper material handling of the finished goods. Efficient man power: if the employees involved in the manufacturing, transporting and handling of the product have sound knowledge about the whole process they are indulged in the risk of unnecessary damage to the product is avoided. Efficient machinery: machinery is a vital part in manufacturing and handling the goods. If the manufacturer keeps updated machines he can finish the production on time and avoid any risk of hurting the relation with the distributor or damaging its goodwill. Proper information system: demand forecasting is done from all the data that is collected through information system. If the information received is proper and up to date the risk of wrong judgment is avoided. Hence the company is less prone to losses. NEW TECHNOLOGIES USED BY CADBURY After the pesticide case that happened with Cadbury it went through allot of changes in supply change process of the product. The new technologies it used are as follows:- New package form: after this incident took place the company in the year 2004 announced that the packaging of its dairy milk chocolate will be completely changed. It said that the chocolates will be now packed in a wrapper which is said to be impenetrable. Direction to the consumer: the company now states all the information on the wrapper of the product that will lead to its contamination. It specifically states the minimum temperature needs to be maintained for the best results. Use of new software : the company uses new software such as the SKEP solutions by DynaSys and other software named SAP in 1999, these software help the company in providing supply chain planning solutions to the company. Use of better storage facilities: due to the perishable nature of the product the company has now focused on its storage. Now even during the transportation of the chocolates from the factory to the distributors the transportation is done in cold storage vans. This avoids any risk of the product getting harmed in any way. Supply chain network: Supply chain network is very important part of any chain management basically means the provision of the product to the ultimate consumer.cadbury is the market leader in supply of the chololates in india as well as in abroad. We will launge our product for the first time in the indian markets to be on a safer side we will distribute our product at very local and regional area. We can design a supply chain network our product as follows. If we want to distribute our product on lacal level then we can design our supply chain network as described as above. Here the total network of supply chain network can be described. The chain will start with the process of manufacturing of chololates of different falvours basically vanilla, strawbery and chololate falvour. As we eneterd in the business newely to cut down the cost of supply chain we will established the call centres at regional doing this we can avoid the caryforwarding agents which will help us to maintain our costs. After establishing the call centres at regional level we will do promotional activity to promote our chololatesat local level. Here comes the second part of our supply chain network and that is retailers . retailers will play the most important part here as they will give us call when they want to place a order with us. By doing this we can avoid the wholesalers in our network. As everyone know chocolate is a very delecate item in nature which very perishable in nature. By establilng the call centres we already avoided the carrying forwarding agents and with the help of the retailers we avoided the wholesalers, here we benefited in two ways: by avoiding the carrying forward agents and wholesalers we avoid the miss handling of our product by which the the quality of chocolate will remain constant untill it reaches to the final cutomers. It will save our cost in the manufacturing ,and in supplying the finished goods as retailers will give us order we will prepare the chocolate according to their demand by taking this into consideration we can handle the inventory management effectively and losses occurred because of the perishability of raw material can be avoide in some percentage which will benefited to us. After placing the order by the retailers out of the 20% of the total payment retailers will pay advance payment online .this will gives us assuratey in the order placement also it will provides clear payment information of any retailer and it will give transprency in the mode of payment. After placing the order and the all manufacturing process the second most important part comes into picture and that is the distribustion part. As we already removed the barrier of the caryforwarding agents and the wholesalers we can distribute our product very easily to the retailers. To do distribustion effectively we will hire the GATI transpoters to distribute our product to retailers. We will do the conttrats with these transporters on anually basis .GATI have a wide distribustion network which will help us in distribution we can a hire a specially designed vans with the air conditioning technology which help to reatin the quality of our product untill it reaches to the ulimate customer. At the time of order placing retailers will give us all information regarding the delivery of goods and with the help gati we can establish a deep and wide network of distribution by which we can deliver a better product in low cost in early time. Aftre reaching to the retailers we will provide them a refigerator facility which will help to maaintain the lower tempreture which will help ful in retaination of quality of our product . Order processing : Order processing the basic and important part in any supply chain management. It is a highly automated area and broad in nature. Order processing is nothing but it is all about geeting order from customers , checking the order status which is made by customers .basically it is a process where filling the order and making it availble to the customers.checking of inventory status, customer credit, invocing and accounts reciviable falls under the order processing. It is a key area of customer attention if order processing of the any organisation is effective in nature it will create a positive impact on the customers perception of service and it will create a favorable response in the form of statisfaction. As we are dealing perisable item that is chocolate we decided to distribute our product at very local and regional level to maintain the quality matters. Here retailers and customers will feel very statisfied about our product as will make chocolates as per the demand made by the ret ailers and ultimately customers. By establishing the exculsive call center service for our retailers we can establish a close realtionship with the every retailers by doing this wee will come to know about the customers expectations about our product and also the suggestions wemwill helps us to modify our startegy. As chocolates will be made by an order it will definitely reduce ourr inventory cost as all raw material which are required in production process it si a perishable in nature the loss occurred by inventory will less then other avoiding the wholesaler and carry forwarding agents we already achieved the succcess as a loss occurred by mishandling will be less. With the technological avdvancement we will change our order processing system. We can use exclusive methods of order processing like EDI (electronic data incharge ) EFT (electronic funds transfer) the whole process of the order processing will be faster, Easier, and efffective because of this whole sys tem we gain the customer attention and retantion also. Because of this whole new development in order processing which we going to adopt will help us to maintain our timing factor which will create a favorable response. Taking into the considertion of the new technollogy Of EDI we will achieve following benefits: Paperwork will be reduced because of which filling process will be easy . Accracy will be improved because of reduction in the manual processing. Speed of order transmission and other data will be increased. Opportunity for proactive contribustion by purchasing because less time is spent on clerical task. Information will be availble at any point of time. Workload will be reduced and accuracy will be incresed of other departments because of linking through this process and other services like bar coding inventory and electronic funds transfer. Reduced inventory cost because of improved accuracy. Inventory mangement : Inventory basically consists of the : Stores inventory which is consists of the raw material used in production process ,spares and other components. Work in process which is consist with the semi finished goods lying mostly on factory floor. Finished goods consists of the goods which are lying in the store prior to despatch for sale. For the effective inventory manangement control regarding our our product it is really very important for us to take care of raw material as requird raw material of our product is very perishable in nature .so we will control the stor inventory by ordering only that quantity of raw material which is actually required for the production process. We will acquired our raw material from the local vendors which will be near to our production unit. This will helps us in time management and it will also helps us to avoid the qualitative loss occurred during the transformation of the raw material to the fifnshed goods. To mange inventory control effectively and taking the risk factor into the consideration we will order only 2% more of the total requirement of the raw material. This will helps us to insured the loss occurred during te second stage that is work in process. After completion of all production process the finshed goods will be sent to the gati transporters .by doing this three s tage inventory control we can achieve the following benefits: We will get the time lead We can analyisis the delivery time ; We can eliminate the low trunover/ obselete items. We can analyisis the customer demand and the its characteristics. Successful plaaning in the demand forecasting by predetermined logic. Re-enginerring inventory mangement practices which also includes the warehousing and transpotation. Inventory mangement also include the delivery of the goods at right time at right place to the right person.if we want get succedd in the inventory mangement we should adopt the certain advance routes of we can take the management party orders where we can supply our chocolates to the management institues where corporate programmes are arranged by doing this we can actually reach to the customers. Ware housing : Warehousing is also an important part of the any logistic sysytem.ware housing is important because it provides a desired level of customer service at lowest possible of total cost . warehousing can be defined as that part of the firms logistics system which stores the products here product means the raw material, parts, goods in process, finished goods at the between point of origin and the point of consumption , and provides informationto the management on the status condition on the items which are stored .warehousing of the product has occurred because: To achieve the transpotation economies and production economies. To maintain the source of supply. To meet the changing market condition. Helps to provide customers with a mix of products insteaded of a single product on each order. It helps in provision of temporary storage of materials to be dispossed or recycled. In our case ware house is extremely important as all raw material required for the production process is highly perisable in nature . not only the raw material but our finished good is also perishable in nature. In the production process also it ie really important to maintai the particular tempreture of the product .to retain the tempreture which is directly related to the qulaity we will designed the cold storage warehoousing system where our raw materials and the finished goods will be stored. TRANSPORTATION: since the business of our product is limited till the local level and is done on a small scale I would not spend much of my capital on any high grade transport company. There are many small transport dealers with whom I can get into a short contract. Even though my business is of small scale it is still very important that my goods are transported on time without damage. Hence I will choose the best local transporter for my goods who is efficient in his work. uninterrupted transport of goods will help my business and goodwill to grow. MATERIAL HANDLING: material handling is a process which involves procuring raw materials to convert it into finished goods. The raw materials that I would require to manufacture my chocolates would be milk, cocoa and sugar. Milk is a perishable product; it cannot be bought in bulk and stored for a long period of time. Hence I would need to find a supplier who can provide me milk on daily basis. It can be from dairys like the modern dairy in pune or diliwaala. Who has the capacity to provide milk according to our demand. Since mine is a small company the capital available is also limited hence I would choose the supplier for cocoa and sugar through bidding method. The supplier that would provide me my raw materials at the lowest cost I will do business with him. Although cocoa and sugar are perishable products they can be stored for more than a week hence placing the order for raw materials becomes easy. The main customers for local chocolates are the small retailers or the kiraana shops. I would appoint agents who can sell my products to these shops and if there is any problem with the product, i.e. if they find it stale or expired they can return the product to my agents who will then later submit the returned product to the company. The kirana shop owner can adjust the amount at the time of next order. INFORMATION SYSTEM: since my company has a small scale business it will be difficult for me to heir large survey companies. Hence my key information tool would be local market survey and mouth to mouth information system. For the information of raw materials suppliers I can search it online or through local market networking. Getting information or feedback from the customers can also be very useful for the growth of my company. Since my capital limited I cannot set up a call center for the customers but I can open a P.O. BOX number where the customers can write their suggestions or queries. Information for the labors required for the company can be attained from the local contractors or thekedars. Who can also help in providing laborers on daily basis. Logistics in packaging: It is important that the packaging of product should statisfy the provisions of the law . It is important that it should meet the requirement of the carriers who transport the goods. It should be kept in mind the material handling equipment used for the moving product in the logistics chain. In case of the of our product we should be extremely careful because of the perishability of the product. To retain our quality of the our product we will used the following pacaking system, The final prouct will be firstly wrapped into the aluminium foil paper . with the protection of the foil paper we will be secured from the qualitative loss which can be ooccured during the transfer of the goods . After wrapping with the aluminium foil next ppackaging procedure will be start with the wrapping up the paper around the aluminium foil which help in protection. The next wrapping procedure will be of the plasctic paper which will be of high desnsity and approved by the government laws. The fianl packaing of the product will contain all the infoarmation of the company and the product . the manufacturing process and the raw material used ,the manufacturing as well as expiry date and other information like quantitative value of the raw materialand other infoarmation. Conclusion and recommendations: Conclusions: Supply chain mangement is the most imporatnt part in the business. From this assignment we understood the inbound and outbound logistics of the chain mangement.we also understood how actually cadbury is made in the factory their distribustion startegy . Recommendations: If cadbury wants to spread their market and want to get connected with thethier customers so they can actually take order from management institutes for the monthly parties which generally occurred in the monh end. Apart from it cadury can actually introduced various falvours in th cadury dairy milk falvour.