Saturday, August 31, 2019
Different literatures were studied to specify and to warrant the importance of the different keywords as they relate to the survey every bit good as to hold a good background on the organic structure of cognition. This certainly will be good to the apprehension of the kernel of ICT tools in Education as they are merely referred as Educational Technology Tools. Technology is going an progressively influential factor in instruction. The usage of computing machines and nomadic phones as complements to educational patterns are really up-to-date development in the country as we are speaking about on-line instruction. The detonation of computing machine usage in different economic countries brought about the ICT dimension in about everything we do these yearss. The demand of new accomplishments and apprehension of pupils and Educators are enforcing itself as a world, besides the environment in which instruction and acquisition is taking topographic point is under changeless alteration every bit good as the direction of the pupils. It is of import to observe that, in order to put the context, by and large talking, there is no 1 accepted definition of what constitutes engineering. Technology is the word associated with anything that aims to ease the human life through alteration. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Ã¢â¬Å" Real World of Technology Ã¢â¬ lectures: defines engineering as a Ã¢â¬Å" pattern, the manner we do things around here Ã¢â¬ . The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term as: Ã¢â¬Å" the practical application of cognition particularly in a peculiar country Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" a capableness given by the practical application of cognition Ã¢â¬ .2.2 Education, Teaching and Learning ProcessEducation from the Webster Ã¢â¬Ës 1828 Dictionary read as follows: The conveying up, as of a kid, direction ; formation of manners. Education comprehends all that series of direction and subject which is intended to edify the apprehension, correct the pique, and organize the manners and wonts of young person, and suit them for utility in their hereafter Stationss. To give kids a good instruction in manners, humanistic disciplines and scien tific discipline, is of import ; to give them a spiritual instruction is indispensable ; and an huge duty remainders on parents and defenders who neglect these responsibilities. Education is a construct in which Instruction, Teaching and Learning are major pillars: Direction refers to the facilitating of larning toward identified aims, delivered either by an teacher or other signifiers. Teaching refers to the actions of a existent unrecorded teacher designed to leave larning to the pupil. Learning refers to larning with a position toward fixing scholars with specific cognition, accomplishments, or abilities that can be applied instantly upon completion. For, instruction is any act or experience that has a formative consequence on the head, character or physical ability of an person. In its proficient sense instruction is the procedure by which society intentionally transmits its accrued cognition, accomplishments and values from one coevals to another. However at that place has ever been a treatment on the affair of guaranting continuity of go throughing on cognition and a affair of furthering creativeness, which propels the scholars to the universe of terra incognitas and forces the coming out of it with invention and inventiveness. Both of these maps relate every bit to knowledge and attitudes, to understanding and behaviors. They are the kernel of the teaching/learning procedure. We want creativeness, but we want it to emerge from what is known and understood. We want continuity and that excessively from what is known and understood. Learning environments in schools typically involve one or more grownup instructors connected with a figure of pupils, normally in good defined physical scenes. Physically it may be in a room, full of peculiar furniture and equipment. The topographic point of computing machines in larning for the bulk of kids is most likely to happen in the schoolroom and, for an increasing figure, at place. However, most experts in the field of educational calculating would characterize computing machines as synergistic and therefore acknowledge them a topographic point within the relationship constructions of the schoolroom acquisition environment, non merely the physical environment. The course of study is concerned with What is learned and taught: includes aims, content, and larning results ( the cognition, accomplishments and attitudes that pupils are intended to show ) . How this acquisition and instruction occurs: concerns teaching/learning methodological analysis, learning schemes and media resources. Most teaching/learning methods and schemes involve the usage of some equipment. Some learning methods may merely include the usage of a chalkboard and chalk while others may do usage of a telecasting or overhead projector. This equipment and its usage within the course of study are frequently referred to as educational engineering.2.3 Educational Technology and ICTEducational engineering concerns the engineering that is used to ease the teaching/learning procedure. As such it is included in the how portion of the course of study. We could see educational engineering as the tools of the learning trade, portion of the medium used to convey the course of study. Thus the engineering used is determined by the intended course of study. Besides portion of the context of the course of study concerns the function of the instructor, the physical scene and the general pedagogical positions of the instructor and instruction system. These are likely to impact the engineering used and may affect t he usage of computing machines. Technology can be seen to be impacting the course of study both in footings of content and methodological analysis, there are a figure of cases where the course of study has been changed due to alterations in engineering, innovation of new engineering has added content to the course of study ( e.g. engineering based on electricity ) or new engineering has made parts of the content obsolete ( e.g. utilizing reckoners alternatively of logarithms for computation ) . Information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) are a Ã¢â¬Å" diverse set of tools and resources used to pass on, make, circulate, shop, and manage information. Ã¢â¬ These engineerings include computing machines, the Internet, airing engineerings ( wireless and telecasting ) , and telephone. Nowadays there is an increasing involvement in how computing machines and the Internet can better instruction at all degrees. Older ICT engineerings, such as wireless and telecasting, have for over 40 old ages been used for unfastened and distance acquisition. There is a assortment of nomenclature that describes the ways computing machines are integrated into the acquisition procedure and in the schoolroom: technology-mediated acquisition, computer-aided direction, distance instruction, distance acquisition, educational engineering, place acquisition engineerings, computer-based instruction, instructional engineering, multimedia, communications systems, Web-based acquisition, educational m ultimedia applications, and computer-mediated communicating etc are merely a sample of those. This variableness in nomenclature is non a affair of dissension among research workers, but merely implies that engineering is a word that is used to depict different things to different people. Technology is a term that is used by many to depict, survey, and measure the assorted ways computing machines are integrated into instruction, both inside and outside the schoolrooms.2.4 Integrating Technology in TeachingFurthermore, there is no consensus about what constitutes engineering in larning or learning. However, the common nexus tends to be some usage of the personal computing machine to help instruction or acquisition in some signifier or manner. These engineerings run the continuum of integrating in instruction from full classs put on the Web to engineering integrated into a specific lesson. Though most research surveies focus on computer-based engineering, there are other learning and l arning engineerings that are non computer-based. These can include overhead projectors, papers cameras, optical maser arrows, robotics, telecasting, VCR, DVD, presentation equipment, sound systems, Cadmiums, tape recordings, simulation machines, and theoretical accounts. Some research workers even consider the traditional piece of chalk and chalkboard a type of engineering. Many pedagogues have argued that the appropriate usage of ICT by pupils can help instructors in finding and providing for the anterior cognition of pupils. Further, it is normally besides argued that ICT can help pupils in prosecuting cognitively to a greater deepness with cognition spheres. That is pupils are supported in using the full scope of believing accomplishments within reliable contexts. This is frequently discussed in footings of cognitive taxonomies such as that provided by Bloom ( 1964 ) . Knowledge The scholar must remember information ( i.e. convey to mind the appropriate stuff ) . Comprehension The scholar understands what is being communicated by doing usage of the communicating. Application The scholar uses abstractions ( e.g. thoughts ) in peculiar and concrete state of affairss. Analysis The scholar can interrupt down a communicating into its constitutional elements or parts. Synthesis The scholar puts together elements or parts to organize a whole. Evaluation The scholar makes judgements about the value of stuff or methods for a given intent. By and large talking, there is an premise that engineering Fosters larning simply by its usage in the educational procedure. Ehrmann ( 1999 ) sums up this premise really nicely: Technologies such as computing machines ( or pencils ) do n't hold predetermined impacts ; it Ã¢â¬Ës their utilizations that influence outcomes. This statement seems obvious, but many establishments act as though the mere presence of engineering will better larning. They use computing machines to learn the same things in the same ways as earlier, yet they expect larning results to be better. ( p. 32 ) In his essay, Clark ( 1983 ) said compactly: Ã¢â¬Å" aÃâ Ã ¦media are mere vehicles that deliver direction but do non act upon pupil accomplishment any more than the truck that delivers our food markets causes alterations in our nutrition Ã¢â¬ ( p. 445 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" if learning occurs as a consequence of exposure to any media, the acquisition is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. ( p. 26 ) Further, he posited that different types of media could be substituted for each other, because media are non responsible for any acquisition that might take topographic point. Media are non the causal agents in the acquisition procedure ; instead, instructional method is the active ingredient or accelerator that causes larning to take topographic point. In contrast to Clark Ã¢â¬Ës statement, Kozma ( 1994 ) believed that the more appropriate inquiry was non whether media do influence acquisition, but will they act upon larning. He besides contended that merely because we have non established a relationship between media and acquisition does non intend that one does non be. He believed that, since we do non to the full understand the relationship between media and acquisition, we have yet to mensurate it, and the failure to set up this relationship is caused in portion by our theories of acquisition, or more specifically, behaviorism, with its basic premise that a stimulus causes a r esponse. Therefore, if the stimulation is non present, there is no possibility for response. Kozma ( 1994 ) explained that in Clark Ã¢â¬Ës position media are merely Ã¢â¬Å" mere vehicles Ã¢â¬ or conduits for an instructional method ( stimulation ) that elicit a response ( larning ) . Kozma argues that larning is a much more complex procedure than merely a series of stimulus-response connexions. Learning, in his position, is defined as Ã¢â¬Å" an active, constructive, cognitive and societal procedure by which the scholar strategically manages available cognitive, physical and societal resources to make new cognition by interacting with information in the environment and incorporating it with information already stored in memory Ã¢â¬ ( p.8 ) . Therefore, in Kozma Ã¢â¬Ës position, since the definition acquisition has evolved to incarnate more of a constructive procedure, our measuring of this procedure must germinate every bit good. Still others have argued for a complete reframing of the argument over engineering and its consequence on acquisition. Jonassen, Campbell, and Davidson ( 1994 ) believed that the Clark/Kozma arguments focused excessively much on direction and media and non plenty on the properties of the scholar who finally constructs the cognition. With all the assorted sentiments on the relationship between engineering and acquisition, it begs the inquiry: who is right? It appears that each theoretician brings an of import position to the tabular array. Clark is right that engineering has non needfully revolutionise the procedure of acquisition. Technology has non helped worlds develop a new manner to larn. Learning is still something that is performed by the person. However, in Clark Ã¢â¬Ës position, all an teacher would necessitate to make is implant the appropriate instructional method into his/her lesson and acquisition should take topographic point. We know, nevertheless, despite many teachers Ã¢â¬Ë best attempts and superior instruction abilities, larning does non ever take topographic point. Kozma is besides right that we must analyze engineering and larning beyond a behavioristic context. Learning is an knowing act ( Jonnasen, 1994 ) and the human being making the acquisition should non be discounted. Research workers have established that there is no important difference between larning with engineering in distance instruction classs and larning in a traditional schoolroom, but they do non discourse how human motive is influenced by engineering. This could be a really of import losing component in the argument. Which side you take in this argument depends mostly upon how you define larning. If you subscribe to more behavioristic positions of acquisition, Clark will do more sense to you. If you conceive of acquisition as a more cognitive or constructivist procedure, you would be more likely to hold with Kozma or Jonnasen. From a pedagogical attack, Information-processing theories emerged from a subdivision of cognitive psychological science that focused on the memory and storage procedures that enable larning. Theorist in this country explores how a individual receives information and shops it in memory. The construction of memory that allows the acquisition of something new, relate to and is built on something learned antecedently and besides how a scholar retrieves information from short-run and long-run memory and applies it to new state of affairss. The well-known information-processing theoretician, David Ausubel, proposed that the manner a scholar receives and shops information affects the utility of the information, for illustration, by reassigning current acquisition to larning other accomplishments. On the other manus, the theoretical account of the behaviorist B.F. Skinner, infers that portion of the Educator Ã¢â¬Ës occupation is to modify the behavior of pupils through positive support, therefore under puting behaviour alteration techniques in schoolroom direction and programmed direction. To this we may state that, the stimulus-response interaction between pupil and engineering can be introduced through computing machines so as to help direction, by supplying drills and patterns on antecedently learned accomplishments, from pattern and tutorial package. The cognitive constructivist, Jean Piaget Ã¢â¬Ës theory has two major parts: one constituent that predicts what kids can and can non understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how kids develop cognitive abilities. The cardinal deductions to these are: First, acquisition is an active procedure where direct experience, doing mistakes, and looking for solutions is critical for the assimilation and adjustment of information. The presentation of information is of import, when it is introduced as an assistance to job work outing. It functions as a tool instead than an stray arbitrary fact. Second, larning should be whole, reliable, and Ã¢â¬Å" existent. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, in a Piagetian schoolroom there is less accent on straight learning specific accomplishments and more accent is laid on larning in a meaningful context. Technology, peculiarly multimedia, offers a huge array of such chances, with the support of educational package on videodiscs and CD-ROMs, Educators can supply a acquisition environment that helps to spread out the conceptual and experiential background of the audience. The societal constructivist, L. S. Vygotsky Ã¢â¬Ës theory has much more room for an active and involved Educator. He claimed that the cardinal point of his psychological attack is mediation. Through mediation human cognitive growing and acquisition as equals and other members of his community engages in relationships with the stuff and societal environment. Thus the usage of engineering can be used to link pupils to each other via electronic mail, forum, newsgroups etc. Now, from here, which approach to take? Which is best suited to heighten larning? What hardware or package to utilize? There is no right or incorrect replies to these inquiries, geting hardware and package bundles will partially decide the job. It is up to the Educator, who knows the lesson aims, the expected consequences and the pupils, to take which attack to utilize and what engineering should attach to the attack. However the finding of the engineering Ã¢â¬Ës worthiness for a given lesson could be answered by the undermentioned inquiries: Is the lesson content worthwhile? ( Are at that place clear aims, connected to criterions or important inquiries, etc? ) Make the lesson activities engage pupils? How does engineering heighten the lesson in ways that would non be possible without it? Educators should so look for the best agencies to ease a diverseness of larning manners, and need to be competent perceivers of the societal surroundings in which scholars interact every bit good as knowing about the content to which they wish to expose scholars. Hence, pedagogues Ã¢â¬Ë development is perfectly indispensable if engineering provided to schools is to be used efficaciously. Simply by puting computing machines in schools, supplying cyberspace installations, passing on IT hardware and package, without financing the pedagogue professional development every bit good, is uneconomical. Educators Ã¢â¬Ë preparation of the usage and application of engineering is the cardinal finding factor to better pupil public presentation for both knowledge acquisition and accomplishments development enabled by engineering. Information engineering professionals have an maxim that Ã¢â¬Å" an unsupported engineering is an fresh engineering. Ã¢â¬ In an article for The Chronicle of Higher Education titled Ã¢â¬Å" When Good Technology Means Bad Teaching, Ã¢â¬ Jeffrey Young made the instance that a ill supported engineering is really worse than no engineering at all. He argued that giving instructors engineering without preparation has frequently done more injury than good to learning and larning. This is doubtless true. At the teacher degree without proper preparation and back up the pedagogues are faced with: the fright of embarrassment in forepart of students and co-workers, loss of position and an effectual degrading of professional accomplishments ( Russell & A ; Bradley 1997 ) schoolroom direction troubles when utilizing ICT, particularly where pupil-to-computer ratios are hapless ( Drenoyianni & A ; Selwood 1998 ; Cox et Al. 1999 ) deficiency of the cognition necessary to enable instructors to decide proficient jobs when they occur ( VanFossen 1999 ) Educational engineering is non, and ne'er will be, transformative on its ain ; it requires pedagogues who can incorporate engineering into the course of study and utilize it to better pupil larning. In other words, computing machines can non replace pedagogues, as they are the key to whether engineering is being used suitably and efficaciously. They need to understand a topic adequate to convey its kernel to pupils. While traditionally this has involved talking on the portion, new instructional schemes put the pedagogue more into the function of class interior decorator, treatment facilitator, and manager and the pupil more into the function of active scholar, detecting the topic of the class. Even if pupils could larn independently with small or no engagement from their instructors on how to utilize engineering to heighten their acquisition and accomplishments development, they are extremely improbable to hold those chances if pedagogues do non allow them hold entree to the engineering. The term Ã¢â¬Å" computer-assisted acquisition Ã¢â¬ ( CAL ) has been progressively used to depict the usage of engineering in learning. Educators besides need professional development in the pedagogical application of those accomplishments to better instruction and acquisition. They should be empowered to develop their cognition and accomplishments actively and experientially, in a assortment of larning environments, both single and collaborative. This, include a assortment of larning schemes, embracing direct direction, tax write-off, treatment, drill and pattern, tax write-off, initiation, and sharing. Therefore accent in the classs should be on the ways engineering can ease and heigh ten his profession lives. Educators Ã¢â¬Ë readying plans are indispensable and as described by Kook ( 1997 ) it is Ã¢â¬Å" the important issue to be addressed Ã¢â¬ ( p.58 ) . The instructor of the hereafter will depend on the computing machine for both personal productiveness and for instructional activities. Kook lists 33 primary computing machine accomplishments for instructors, runing from voyaging the Windows desktop environment, to utilizing IRC confab, to put ining package. Kook suggests that these accomplishments should be portion of the needed classs for prospective instructors and insists that in the following century Ã¢â¬Å" teacher instruction will be forced to suit a considerable sum of transmutation to let instructors to work efficaciously in the Information Age Ã¢â¬ ( p.59 ) . Computer engineering can non be effectual in the schoolroom without instructors who are knowing about both the engineering itself and about how to utilize it to run into educational ends. The most common barrier to adequate preparation is the disbursal involved. Without preparation, nevertheless, other engineering disbursement has a fringy consequence ( Boyd, 1997 ) . Learning to run computing machine hardware, turning comfy with many different package applications, developing direction systems for pupil computing machine usage, and redesigning lesson programs to do usage of engineering, takes a great trade of clip. When combined with thwarting hardware bugs and package bugs, the undertaking can go dashing for even the most determined. Often, what stops people is one small thing that they did n't cognize how to make. If you have a room full of childs when something goes incorrect, it discourages you from seeking it once more ( Zehr, 1997, p.3 ) . Leading to the inquiry why school instructors do n't utilize, and sometimes defy, the usage of computing machines? Hannafin and Savenye ( 1993 ) name some research-based possible accounts for instructor opposition to utilizing computing machines. These grounds include: ill designed package, uncertainty that computing machines improve larning results, bitterness of the computing machine as a rival for pupil Ã¢â¬Ës attending, unsupportive decision makers, increased clip and attempt required of the instructor, fright of losing control of Ã¢â¬Å" centre phase, Ã¢â¬ and fright of Ã¢â¬Å" looking stupid. Ã¢â¬ in forepart of the category. Sing the instructor Ã¢â¬Ës function as a continuum, Hannafin and Savenye ( 1993 ) besides put the function of traditional lector and imparter of cognition at one terminal and the function of manager, observer, and facilitator at the other terminal. They so generalize that the traditional terminal of the continuum embraces an objectivist larning theory while the other terminal is likely to encompass constructivism. The instructor Ã¢â¬Ës position of acquisition, so, could be another beginning of opposition to classroom engineering. A instructor may be unfastened to engineering but resist the attach toing alteration in larning theory. This would propose that in add-on to supplying developing in engineering, schools and territories need to supply information, preparation, encouragement, and support to instructors in traveling toward a more constructivist position of instruction. The direction should defend the alteration, policies has to be adopted as from the direction degree down t o the pupils, everybody contributing and attach toing the reform for it to be successful and to be able to take out the maximal benefit. This issue is addressed with trouble, because Ã¢â¬Å" Principals, on norm, are 50 old ages old. We Ã¢â¬Ëve got a coevals of people who are really barriers to the extract of engineering in school systems and are afraid of it themselves Ã¢â¬ ( Quoted in Trotter, 1997, p.1 ) . It has Ã¢â¬Å" become clear over the past decennary that simple motivational and short-workshop strategies are immensely deficient to enable veteran ( and even new, computer-generation ) instructors to learn otherwise, and to learn good with engineerings Ã¢â¬ ( Hawkins and Honey, 1993 ) . The grounds suggested that instructors who use engineering in their schoolrooms are more effectual if they have received preparation, if they have district-level support and if they have a web of other computer-using instructors to portion experiences with. Swan and Mitrani province that Ã¢â¬Å" computing machines can alter the nature of instruction and acquisition at its most basic degree Ã¢â¬ ( 1993 ) . We need to guarantee that we are utilizing our current cognition about the application of engineering in instruction as a footing for continuing in the hereafter. The direction has besides its portion in the integrating of the the educational engineering in the school. Policies and support plans must be initiated from the top direction and they must be portion of and attach to the alteration. The most of import barrier to this integrating is the fiscal barriers. They include the cost of hardware, package, care ( peculiar of the most advanced equipment ) , and widen to some staff development. Froke ( 1994b ) said, Ã¢â¬Å" refering the money, the challenge was alone because of the nature of the engineering. Ã¢â¬ The initial investing in hardware is high but the costs of engineering have to portion of the cost of direction. The integrating reveals the institutional support through leading, planning and the engagement of instructors every bit good as directors in implementing alteration.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Music Essay African music roots start in every aspect of society. Their culture is formed from there environment hunting but mostly on their tradition. Their music reflects this not only is it entertaining it serves as a way to pass knowledge and stories to the next generation. African music has a variety of different instruments that they use throughout their songs. Music in African culture also has very strong spiritual and religious meanings. The recent history of African musical influence has played a large part in encouraging the current trend toward African musical appreciation. During the 1950s, when the Africans experienced rapid urbanization and a relatively booming economy, the two French-speaking colonies of the Congo area witnessed the birth of an African version of the Cuban rumba played by small American-style orchestras. Some artists that are African are Afro-National, Khaled Agag, Eric Agyeman, and Mahmoud Ahmed. Other than using their voices, which has been developed to use various techniques, they use a wide array of musical instruments are used. African musical instruments include a wide range of drums, slit gongs, rattles, double bells, and melodic instruments including string instruments. Other percussion instruments include many rattles and shakers, such as the kosika, rain stick, bells and wood sticks. Also, Africa has lots of other types of drums, and lots of flutes, and lots of stringed and wind instruments. The traditional tribal African music has deep meaning in its lyrics along with its rhythm and beat, its lyrics often tell of struggles, religion, and day to day life. The Africans would perform rituals to try to please the gods, these rituals would include music made by the high priest the instruments used would be tribal drums and a rain stick. The lyrics would be similar to Christian hymns in our modern culture
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Pharma Co. is a U.S. subsidiary of a U.K. entity that prepares its financial statements in accordance with (1) U.S. GAAP for reporting to its U.S.-based lender and (2) IFRSs in reporting to its parent. Pharma Co. is considering the relocation of a manufacturing operation from its present location to a new facility in a different geographic area as part of the restructuring a business line. The relocation plan related to the following facts: Facts Financial affection Dec 15, 2010, issued a press release to terminate the lease of the old facility. Jan 31,2011,at which time it will sign the lease termination agreement, Pharma Co. plans to vacate the Plant A facility. The lease is an operating lease with termination fee is $1.3M. The lease was entered into in Feb 2004 with a term of 10 years. The written notice is required for early termination. Dec 27, 2010, communicated the main features of a one-time, nonvoluntary termination plan to its employees. The reduction includes approximately 120 employees, which represents 10 percent of workforce without identified the specific employees. The workforce reduction is expected to be completed by Jan 31, 2011, and is expected to cost approximately $3 million. Pharma Co. has entered into irrevocable contracts with certain other relevant parties to affect the restructuring plan. Relocation cost: $500,000 Staff training cost: $1.5M. Pharma Co. stated its intention to dismantle the existing operation. The cost to dismantle the existing manufacturing operation is estimated to be $1M. There is no legal obligation for dismantling plants when abandoned. Issue How should Pharma Co. account for the restructuring program for the yearÃ ended Dec 31, 2010 under U.S. GAAP? Analysis FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Subtopic 420-10 Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations presents the relevant guidance on cost obligations. Per ASC 420-10-25-12, Contract Termination Costs include: Ã¢â¬Å"A liability for costs to terminate a contract before the end of its term shall be recognized when the entity terminates the contract in accordance with the contract terms ( for example, when the entity gives written notice to the counterparty within the notification period specified by the contract or has otherwise negotiated a termination with the counterparty)Ã¢â¬ Although Pharma Co. issued a press release to terminate the lease at Dec 15, 2010, this fact did not reach an agreement. So Pharma Co. do not need record the $1.3 termination fee until Jan 31,2011, which was the date sign the termination agreement. One-time employee termination benefits Under ASC 420-10-25-4 requirement, an arrangement for one-time employee termination benefits should meet all the following requirements: Ã¢â¬Å"a. Management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan of termination. b. The plan identifies the number of employees to be terminated, their job classifications or functions and their location, and the expected completion date. c. The plan establishes the terms of the benefit arrangement, including the benefits that employees will receive upon termination (including but not limited to cash payments). In sufficient detail to enable employee to determine the type and amount of benefits they will receive if they are involuntarily terminated. d. Actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.Ã¢â¬ Pharma Co. already approved the employee termination plan in the appendix B with 120 employees at current location. This wo rkforce reduction was expected to be completed by Jan 31, 2011. Although there is no details in appendix B, employees still can information of termination benefit from communication with CEO. Since this is a nonvoluntary termination plan, we are sure that Pharma Co. should recognize the one-time employee termination benefits for the year ended Dec 31, 2010 under GAAP requirement. One-time employee termination benefitsAs the appendix B posted, the employees are not terminated their service or received their benefits. According to the ASCÃ 420-10-30-5, Ã¢â¬Å" If employees are not required to render service until they are terminated in order to receive the termination benefits (that if, is employees are entitled to receive the termination benefits regardless of when they leave) or if employees will not be retained to render service beyond the minimum retention period, a liability for the termination benefits shall be measured at its fair value at the communication date.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, $3M approximately cost could not record instead of its fair value at Dec 27, 2010. Relocation Cost and Staff Training Cost Although Pharma Co. has entered into irrevocable contracts with certain other relevant parties, since they do not mention the specific time to start the relocation program, it is not need to recognized those future expense until it is really paid. Dismantling Cost As ASC 420-10-25-15 notes about associated costs, Ã¢â¬Å"The liability shall not be recognized before it is incurred, even if the costs are incremental to other operating costs and will be incurred as a direct result of a plan. A liability for other costs associated with an exit or disposal activity shall be recognized in the period in which the liability is incurred (generally, when goods or services associated with the activity are received).Ã¢â¬ So the main point here is whether the dismantling activates happened, not what it is related to. Therefore, Pharma Co. should not recognize the dismantling cost for the year ended Dec 31, 2010.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Employee Relations - Essay Example Skills and competence are very critical as they assist in achieving performance benefits through focusing on commitment, involvement, and engagement. These relations are strategic in managing business risks and mostly emphasize on unionizing management and unions. Influence is also very important in developing interpersonal communications as it provides professional satisfaction with the ability to influence, negotiate and empower valuable information thus enhancing more ideas. In the above case study, there are various aspects that need to be addressed. To begin with there are external influences that currently impact on this organization and this will include the political aspects, economic aspects, social-cultural and technological aspects. The political aspects will relate to ways in which changes in government and governmentÃ policy influence this organization as a whole. According to the Health trust provider, the government policy has other health providers in the vicinity, due to the recession the government fiscal policy and the budget deficit is more than the usual stringent thus the health trust expects to suffer the real drop of 10% in the entire region this year. The health trust is therefore expected to increase the number of patients and to elevate service quality, efficiency and effectiveness for them to make the budget constrain meet targets (Daniels 2006, p. 157). There is also need to identify key structural changes in the world around them which affect demand andÃ supplyÃ conditions for their products. This will involve the economic changes. The economy will be the number one change driver; this is because it brings the necessary conditions for change. The economy at the moment is in recession but it seems the organization can still cope with this situation.Ã
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Careers in Lodging and Food and Beverage Industries - Essay Example Lodging is basically a form of residential accommodation where people who travel and live away from home for some times can rent to sleep and perform common household functions. Publishing (2009) states that, lodging is mainly done in hotels, private homes, hostels, tents among others. In the lodging industries there are numerous management careers which eligible employees in the sector can engage in, these careers include; general management , events coordination, housekeeping, sales management , purchasing , security management, accounting and finance among others. General management is concerned with the conduct of activities in the lodging and ensuring that everything in all areas is in accord with what is planned. The house keeping career entails maintaining order in lodging facilities and ensuring that rooms are keep tidy all the time. Housekeeping managers are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that customers are comfortable in the rooms of residence. The lodging indu stry involves a lot of money transaction between customers and the lodge management. In this regard accounting and finance mangers are required in order to supervise these money transactions. Therefore, accounting and finance career entails booking keeping, preparation and interpretation of financial statements for proper decision making. Millions of people secure job vacancies in the food and beverages industry every year (Ojugo, 2010). Management careers that may be offered in the food and beverage industry include operations management, catering, consultant, events management, human resource management, accounting and finance among others. Operations manager is required in order plan and organize the way work should be done. In fact, operation management requires individuals with credible administration skills in order to ensure that guidelines are given accordingly. Catering
Technological Awareness of Teachers - Essay Example Because technology provides animation and different kinds of presentation using media materials, and these helps our students to absorb information by just watching and listening. Essentially, educational technology helps to improve the overall efficiency of the teaching-learning process. It is noted that a microteaching session can be real and convincing since it issues videotape recording as evaluative medium and should be learned by our mentors. As educators became much more aware of their responsibility to deliver the best quality education to students, they have begun to recognize the need to be aware of educational technology. The perception when educational technology was first heard is a negative one but it appears that to many people it has served to inhibit the introduction of better educational technology and its use in improving the delivery with higher quality learning outcomes.2 The new technologies are radically changing the nature and configuration of adult education. With computer information, educators are no longer the primary source of factual information. Changes are therefore occurring in the methods and content of instruction, both supplementing and changing the relationship between the teacher and the learner. Still, the new technologies have freed many individuals to enjoy their leisure and to work at home in a distraction-free environment. And in the future, most educational services are foreseen to be delivered electronically by teleconferencing, cable and satellite television, computer networks and other means et to be discovered - provided educators learn how to use the media in congruence with the principles of community education. The future trends in media technology hold promise for further improving learning, reducing the barriers that limit effectiveness in the learning process, and tapping the potentials of new technological tools in instruction. The researcher will inform the teachers and would be teachers that as they enter the educational field at a very exciting moment as a teacher, human resource trainer or educational administrator. There has been expressed a critical need for an effective in-service program on the development of teaching competence. Among the alternative strategies introduced, however, Microteaching has been cited as being both a model and a real teaching encounter. In the search for strategies to develop teaching skills microteaching sessions have shown tangible to have positively contributed to the professional growth and improved teaching performance of student teachers. Background of the Research (Progressive nature of the documents that show the development process ) The researcher chose this topic to help and inform educators regarding the usage and usefulness of educational technology on their teaching profession and know what are the instructional media and technology to use. There is something that teacher's are missing on, in the tertiary education, there has been and increasing emphasis on group learning techniques. This move to group learning has been given further impetus by the development of science and technology-based games simulation and case studies. These techniques of instructions are ideally suited for use in teaching the various higher cognitive and non-cognitive skills are now regarded as essential part of a properly rounded
Monday, August 26, 2019
Political and economic developments - Essay Example The American political scene has for a long time been dominated by two major political parties despite the constitution allowing the existence of as many parties as the citizens would deem fit. These two parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. These two parties differ in policies and fundamental political ideologies. However, having only two political parties is a show of political maturity. This has contributed to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic prosperity. With the attainment of independence of most countries, the notion of self rule brought with it the possibilities of the countries liberating their citizenry from poverty and even bad governance. This new system of self governance took a myriad of forms with most of the colonies taking after their colonial masters (Michael & John, 2000). This made early European civilization receive much acknowledgement. Most of these types of governance were based on democracy which is a system that allows the populace the author ity to elect their leaders. According to varying preferences, some countries opted for the presidential system in which the president would be directly elected by the populace. The United States is a classical example of this kind of governance. Others opted for a parliamentarian system in which the elected legislatures elect the president. ... Factors that lead to the creations of these nations differ; these are such basic factors as the size of the country, the population size, the religious beliefs of the populace, and multiple others. These are responsible for the formulation of the laws that the legislators deem relevant. What is of relevance in one region is never relevant tin another. The relativity in legal relevance thus explains the difference in regional legislations. The economic growth of a country is determined by a number of factors. Most of these factors are politically instigated. A country that is politically stable like the United States attracts investors. With investors coming to such demographyÃ¢â¬â¢s, the implication would imminent economic progress (Hill, 2010). The American currency The dollar is the most traded currency globally. This is a clear show of how strong the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is. The strong economy is sustained by fundamental economic concepts which suit its economy as well as po pulace. There are deliberate moves made by the American government to sustain its economy and safeguards its interests in the world market. These are highlighted in the proceeding part. The American economy has over the years projected manageable rates of inflation due to sound financial policies. This implies a strong economic prospect for the country. Furthermore, this also ensures that the currency retains a strong presence in the financial markets globally. The second factor that has led to the strong currency is the high interest rates that characterize the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s banking and lending sector. When interest rates are high, the market becomes attractive to investors who would in turn take part in the investments in the securities such as bonds (Stefan, Christopher & Jochen, 2008). This
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Service quality and customer's satisfaction in academic libraries - Essay Example A real library contains these along with various instructional and access tools and a high quality customer service. In a library, the fundamental goal of a librarian is to make sure that the service provided is consistent with the mission of the institution of which library forms a part. Service quality of academic libraries: Past and present: Service quality of an academic library is a measure of the customer satisfaction and the extent to which customers feel that their expectations have meet met by the service given. Calculation and management of the customer satisfaction has remained a usual practice in for-profit sector for long. The assessment of service quality in the present age finds its roots in the same old trend of measurement of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction has frequently undergone many changes in the last four decades as a concept. According to Crosby (1993), the contemporary concept of service quality is significantly influenced by all the approaches m ade to it in that past that include the 1960sÃ¢â¬â¢ corporate image studies and the 1980sÃ¢â¬â¢ total quality approach adopted by many economies in the West. The corporate image studies formed the very initial stage of calculation of customer satisfaction that emerged in the 1960s. The image surveys included questions about customer satisfaction and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ views about the quality of service given. These questions investigated the progressiveness and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s level of engagement with the community. In the later half of the 1960s, the commencement of studies about the product quality emerged as the second stage of customer satisfaction measurement. A satisfaction index resulted from the adequacy-importance model which served as the cardinal means of measurement of the customer satisfaction, and played an important role in defining the attitudes of the customers. A revolution in the customer satisfaction measurement occurred in the 1980s when the American aut omobile business increased manifolds in competition and many syndicated studies were made. The measurement of customer satisfaction in the contemporary age is quite similar to the trend introduced in the 1980s. The businesses turned to customer satisfaction as a measurement of their quality of service rather and the process of assessment became more intangible. The Gaps Model of Service Quality: Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml (1985) formed a research group to measure the customer satisfaction using the Gaps Model of Service Quality. The Gaps Model made a totally new approach to the measurement of customer satisfaction by determining the gaps between the expectations of customers and their views regarding the quality of service. In this model, customers establish their expectations, as well as the lowest quality of service that would be acceptable to them. Then once the service has been delivered, the customer explains how he thinks about the quality of service he/she was delivered. The equation, thus, goes as follows: Perceived service quality Ã¢â¬â expected service quality = gap in service quality. According to Hernon and Nitecki (2001), there are four basic perspectives that define the quality of service namely, excellence, value, compliance with specifications, and achievement of expectations. It is the fourth perspective
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Diabetes-Impaired Wound Healing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Diabetes-Impaired Wound Healing - Research Paper Example Therefore, the main objective of this study will to find the best method wound care for patients with diabetes between natural wound care and traditional wound care. Even though the two methods were known to be effective, the natural wound care as indicated in the paper is more effective in treating the condition. In future, there is need for researchers to undertake more studies and properly store the information in order to make it accessible and useful. Diabetes has emerged as a serious metabolic disease that is affecting individuals from all geographic, racial and ethnic origin. With its level at the increase globally, burden from this costly disease is felt by the developed as well as emerging economies. One of the notable countries that have high cases of diabetes is India. For example, in 2013, more than 65 million adults were affected by the disease in India. This number is projected to increase to 109 million if the government does not take major steps to curb new cases of t he disease. Some of the notable risk factors for type 2 diabetes in the case of India include positive family history of diabetes, presence of hypertension, having more than 35 years, upper body adiposity, recent weight gain, gestational diabetes and sedentary lifestyle (Ramachandran 2014). Warning signs of diabetes include unexplained weight loss, irritability, frequent fatigue, dry mouth, itching, reactive hypoglycemia, decreased vision, delayed would healing, impotence or erectile dysfunction among others (Allison et al 2014).
Friday, August 23, 2019
Jennifer Weltz Discussion Board - Coursework Example The background image of an open book and presentation of various authors work is informative on the role of the corporation. Furthermore, the placement of functional hyperlink at the top region of the website makes navigation easy. In addition, the information about presented on the website is appropriate for the purpose of the website. Consequently, this among other reasons brings out the purpose of the website. 1. As the president of JVNLA, an organizational that has sold books domestically and internationally for almost two decades, I would like to know what do you look for in an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work that makes JVNLA what it is today (Our Team: Jennifer Weltz )? 3. With regard to your speech to the Historical Novel Society Convention that was held in San Diego, Madam President I quote Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I try to help my authors receive what they need to make their books reach their highest potentialÃ¢â¬ . To me this implies that you have a commanding knowledge in realizing what it takes one to be the best author. Do you have any plans to nurture potential authors
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Modern Terrorism Essay Part One: 1. What major measures can the international community take to prevent terrorism? The fight against terrorist organizations and terrorism is not just a fight that the United States must face alone. This is evident from the Madrid train bombings, the bombings in London, and the terrorist attacks that Israel seems to face everyday from Hizballah. Terrorism is, in effect, international. All nations have a responsibility to combat terrorism to protect them and to protect other nations as well. One of the security measures that can be undertaken is that of securing aircraft and airports. Enders and Sandler cite in their book that between 1973 and 2002, there was an average of ten skyjackings per year (Enders, W. . Sandler, T., 2012). This was a number that is surprising due to the fact that it seems like most werent reported or very little coverage was given to the incidences. There are new technologies being developed all the time to aid in securing of air travel. There is new technology in the area of explosive detection devices. One such technology is called micro-tagging. During this process, tiny chips of micro-taggants are blended into explosive substances and color-coded to identify the manufacturer and batch of explosives (IME, 2005). This system would also be beneficial in the reconstruction of bomb scenes and used to gain knowledge and prepare for future terrorist acts. Another innovative technology is called dielectric analysis. Dielectric analysis is a powerful non-destructive tool for characterizing materials; it can provide accurate, repeatable results unavailable by other electrical means. This, in essence, gives the explosive agents a Ã¢â¬Å"fingerprintÃ¢â¬ and could provide immediate identification of explosive substances at airports (DHS, 2012). Along with technological advanced in air security, people can often make the biggest impact. In this area, Federal Air Marshals play an important role. This is not something that all countries partake in but more and more countries are adding these individuals to their flights. The airline association estimates that 10 or 20 out of some 115 airlines that fly into the United States already use air marshals (Lichtblau, 2003). Israel, for instance, has used marshals on El Al flights for years, and as stated, some other countries have followed suit more recently, as Australia announced in 2003 that Qantas Airways would begin placing armed marshals on flights to Singapore. Mexico has stated that they would start to use their own air marshals on flights that are going to the United States. However, not all countries and airlines are signed on to the idea. Air France does not use air marshals and the British Air Line Pilots Association said it does not believe that arms belong on aircraft, and British Airways, the countrys biggest airline, said it reserves the right not to fly if it is forced to add air marshals (Lichtblau, 2003). Although there is a general feeling among passengers that they would feel safer on a flight if there were an air marshal on board, not everyone believes the passengers would necessarily be safer. There are those that cite that an armed conflict on a plane would become more dangerous to the passengers as opposed to just letting the terrorist state their demands and work with them for the release of passengers. Sound, actionable, intelligence is another area that countries can utilize for overall protection. Political intelligence is an important factor to combating terrorism. This can be used to identify where the groups are garnering the most support for their cause. When this has been determined, pressure from other nations can be placed on these states to not support the terrorists. The gathering and use of military intelligence is vital in any operation. The intelligence gathered by our forces can assist in finding out how many are in a particular group, what kinds of weapons they have, and where they are located. 2. Do you think the U.S. should follow IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s example of fighting terrorism? Explain fully. Israel has been fighting terrorism for many years, even before they became a nation in 1948. They are surrounded by Muslim nations, which historically do not get along with Israelis. This is particularly true of Palestinians. Since Israel is surrounded by so many that wish to do them harm, they have had to take more drastic steps in order to protect themselves. They had become one of the first countries to articulate a deliberate and official policy of retaliation against terrorism. Most nations understand that a nation must fight back in order to protect itself and its interests. Israel on the other hand seems to retaliate in a much more aggressive manner. Such a case was their retaliation against an Arab village in Qibiya, Jordan in 1953. On October 13, 1953, Jordanian terrorists infiltrated the Israeli border and threw a grenade into a house, killing a mother and two children in Tiryat Yehuda. In an effort to prevent further attacks and protect its borders, Israel launched a reprisal raid on Qibiya, a Jordanian town across the border from Tiryat Yehuda. Unit 101, led by then Colonel Ariel Sharon, destroyed 50 homes, killing 69 Jordanian civilians who were hidden inside and had gone unnoticed (Oreck, A. 2007). Sharon had stated that he was not aware that civilians were involved but that did not help in the embarrassment that Israel suffer ed due to the incident. The Israelis have pioneered the area of preemptive strikes against terrorism. This policy is a bit more difficult to convince the international community for its justification. It is one thing to fight back against an attack on your country it is another to strike first to prevent such an attack. But in many cases is necessary to do so. Should we follow IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s example? If that question had been posed ten or fifteen years ago, I may have said no. Today, my answer would be yes, with a caveat. Though it may be difficult, I think we would need other countries to publicly back us to carry out certain missions. In the case of a preemptive strike, our allies must be informed of such action so they are not taken by surprise of the situation. As far as targeted killings, we had better have support in this undertaking or else we are going to look like the aggressors or worse, assassins. A prime example is our current situation in the Middle East. Although the United States has a policy against taking out heads of state, which President Ford imposed by executive order in 1976, there is nothing to say that we cannot take out leaders of terrorist groups as in the case of Osama bin Laden. In the climate we live in today, we had better have all of our options open and on the table if we want to defend ourselves and help prevent future attacks. 3. Identify and explain at least three international conventions organized to suppress terrorism. I.The International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 9, 1999, and signed on behalf of the United States of America on January 10, 2000. The Convention is aimed at cutting off the funding that terrorist groups need to operate. This Convention provides an obligation that States Parties criminalize such conduct and establishes an international legal framework for cooperation among States Parties directed toward prevention of such financing and ensuring the prosecution and punishment of offenders, wherever found. II.The International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing was adopted in 1997. At this convention, The United Nations (1997) states: Created a regime of universal jurisdiction over the unlawful and intentional use of explosives and other lethal devices in, into, or against various defined public places with intent to kill or cause serious bodily injury, or with intent to cause extensive destruction of the public place. (article 2) It is similar to other conventions in that it requires parties to extradite or submit for prosecution personÃ¢â¬â¢s accused of committing or aiding in the commission of such offenses. III.The Convention on the Making of Plastic Explosives for the purpose of Detection was ratified by the United Nations in 1991. The members of the U.N. were concerned that plastic explosives had been used for such terrorist acts in the past and could be again in the future and wanted to do something about it. This Convention was aimed at deterring such unlawful acts of the use of plastic explosives because they felt there was a need for an international mandate for States to adopt appropriate measures to ensure that plastic explosives are marked. 4. Briefly evaluate the provision of the U.S. Patriot Act. The U.S. Patriot Act has ten different provisions that outline the United States governments war on terrorism. These provisions impact the war on terrorism in different ways. Some of the provisions deal with rights and responsibilities; others provide areas in which terrorism can be fought. The first title is for the enhancement of domestic security and provides for funding and information gathering. It also prohibits the discrimination against Muslim Americans. Title II is probably the most controversial of all the provisions. It is here where the perceived infringement on civil liberties takes place. This provision reshapes the way the federal government can collect information. The FBI can seize materials from private citizens when it believes national security is at stake and then get permission from courts to do so afterwards. Title III involves the area of money laundering and the financing of terrorist organizations. Title IV increases border patrols and mandates the detention of suspected terrorists. Title V deals with removing obstacles in the investigation of terrorism and addresses the capture and prosecution of terrorists. Title VI provides aid to the families of Public Safety Officers who were injured or killed in terrorist attacks, and amends the Victims of Crime Act of 1984. Title VII supports the sharing of information by federal law enforcement agencies. Title VIII strengthens criminal laws against terrorism, defines domestic terrorism, and expands biological weapons statutes. Title IX provides guidance on intelligence information sharing from foreign agencies. The information derived from electronic surveillance or physical searches is disseminated for efficient and effective foreign intelligence purposes. The last title is kind of a catchall and is listed as miscellaneous. It contains 16 sections that do not fall under other titles in the act. 5. Briefly discuss the impact of emergency powers on defeating terrorism. Many nations have forms of so called, Ã¢â¬Å"Emergency PowersÃ¢â¬ . Some countries call it Ã¢â¬Å"State of ExceptionÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Special PowersÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"Terrorist AffectedÃ¢â¬ . No matter what a country may call their emergency powers, extreme circumstances may exist in which the security of the country in needed and these powers allow for authorities to stop, search, question and detain individuals suspected of terrorist involvement. There have been emergency powers used even before the United States was formed. Between 1775 and 1781, the Continental Congress passed a series of acts and resolves which count as the first expressions of emergency authority. These instruments dealt almost exclusively with the prosecution of the Revolutionary War (Relyea, 2006). The President of the United States has available certain powers that may be exercised in the event that the nation is threatened by crisis, exigency, or emergency circumstances (other than natural disasters, war, or near-war situations). Part Two: What changes has the F.B.I. made since 9/11? How have these changes improved the F.B.I.Ã¢â¬â¢s ability to respond to terrorism? Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Robert S. Muller, III said the following in a 2008 Washington Times article: Before 9/11, we were an agency that focused primarily on investigating crimes after the fact, he told The Washington Times in an e-mail interview this week. Today we are actively preventing and disrupting destructive and illegal acts before they occur. (para. 3) A few examples of how the F.B.I. is accomplishing this are how they recruit and train their special agents. Mr. Muller instituted a five-year move up or get out plan for its leadership, calling it critical to the success of the future success of the F.B.I. The budget for 2012 was $8.1 billion including $119.2 million in program increases to enhance counterterrorism, computer intrusions, and other programs (The FBI, 2012). They have also made great efforts to increase information sharing with other intelligence agencies which makes efforts to prevent terrorists activities a greater success as in the thwarting of the attempted bombing of downtown Manhattan financial district just a few short months ago. Since the institution of Director MullerÃ¢â¬â¢s initiatives and the FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s new focus on counterterrorism rather than just being a reactive agency, the FBI is better trained and equipped to not only respond but to go on the offensive when needed. With the help of the Patriot Act and the expanded powers it allows law enforcement to react more decisively and with greater effectiveness. Part Three: What were the policies of Germany and Japan before 9/11? What measures have been taken by these two countries in order to combat terrorism? Prior to 9/11, the German government had a typical laissez faire approach to international terrorists and their organizations. After 9/11 this changed. In a CRS report, Miko, F.T. (2004), stated the following: The German response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks against the United States was immediate and unprecedented in scope for that country. Setting aside its post-World War II prohibition against deploying forces outside of Europe and overcoming pacifist leanings of some in the governing coalition, Germany quickly offered military and other assistance to the United States. In his initial reaction to the attacks of 9/11, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder declared GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"unlimited solidarityÃ¢â¬ with the United States. On September 12, 2001, the German government, along with other U.S. allies, invoked NATOÃ¢â¬â¢s Article V, paving the way for military assistance to the United States. The Chancellor gained approval from the German Parliament to deploy troops to Afghanistan with a call for a vote of confidence in his own government. Since then, German efforts in the fight against terrorism have expanded across a wide spectrum. Germany has instituted significant policy, legislative, and organizational reforms. Bilateral cooperation with the United States has been extensive, despite differences stemming from the distinct approaches and constraints in each country and frictions resulting from sharp disagreement over Iraq policy. (p. 1) Since the end of WWII and JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat, their policy has been one of maintaining a Ground Self Defense Force (GSDF) aimed at protecting the homeland only. While Japan remains a loyal supporter of the United States, the public is very reluctant to view military intervention outside the country as favorable. However, they did send a small force to Iraq in a relatively peaceful operating environment in the town of Samawah. While there they neither caused nor received any casualties, which was popular with the Japanese public. Although Japanese opinion on the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq suggests a willingness to recognize the utility of military power for territorial defense, but not for offensive uses of force, unless these are directly related to national defense, they remain a strong supporter of U.S. policies against terrorists. Part Four: Summarize the salient points of the National Strategy For Combating Terrorism. The salient points of the National Strategy For Combating Terrorism can be summed up as follows: Ã¢Å¾ ¢Defeat Terrorists and Their Organizations Ã¢Å¾ ¢Deny Sponsorship, Support, and Sanctuary to Terrorists Ã¢Å¾ ¢Diminish the Underlying Conditions that Terrorists Seek to Exploit Ã¢Å¾ ¢Defend U.S. Citizens and Interests at Home and Abroad The list above serves as the Goals and Objectives of the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism as of 2007. These same goals still hold true today. Part Five: Summarize the salient points of the National Strategy To Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. This was first issued by then President, George W. Bush in December 2002. A description of strategy is as follows: The Weapons of Mass Destruction strategy presents a national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) through three major efforts: (1) nonproliferation, (2) counter-proliferation, and (3) consequence management in WMD incidents (The White House, 2003). The plan addresses the production and proliferation of WMD among nations, as well as the potential threat of terrorists using WMD agents. I leave you with a final quote from President George W. Bush. Ã¢â¬Å"The gravest danger our Nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology. Our enemies have openly declared that they are seeking weapons of mass destruction, and evidence indicates that they are doing so with determination. The United States will not allow these efforts to succeed. History will judge harshly those who saw this coming danger but failed to act. In the new world we have entered, the only path to peace and security is the path of action.Ã¢â¬ President Bush The National Security Strategy of the United States of America September 17, 2002 References: (2005). Taggant History and Background. IME. Retrieved January 8, 2013 from http://www.ime.org/dynamic.php?page_id=66 (2012). Electromagnetic Studies of Explosives Laboratories. 1-2. Department of Homeland Security: http://www.orau.gov/DHS-TSLvisSciProg/labs/TSL_EMX LAB.pdf. (2012). Quick Facts. The FBI. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/quick-facts Conery, B., Mueller praises FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s changes since 9/11. The Washington Times. [Editors Picks]. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2008/jul/25/mu eller-praises-fbis-changes-since-911/?page=all Enders, W. . Sandler, T. (2012). The Political Economy of Terrorism. (2nd ed., pp. 86-90). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Lichtblau, E. (2003). U.S. says it will force countries to arm flights. San Francisco Chronicle, A/1. Retrieved January 8, 2013, from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2003/12/30/MNGJD40F651.DTLtype=printable. Miko, F.T. (2004). Germanys Role in Fighting Terrorism: Implications for U.S. Policy. (RL32710). 1. United States Congress. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32710.pdf Oreck, A. (2007). Qibya. Jewish Virtual Library, The Library. Retrieved January 8, 2013, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Qibiya.html. Relyea, H. C. (2006). National Emergency Powers. In CRS Report for Congress. Congress. Retrieved January 9, 2013, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf. The White House. (2003). National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. Arms Control Today. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2003_01-02/document _janfeb03 United Nations. (1997). Conventions Against Terrorism. Retrieved January 9, 2013, from United Nations: http://www.un.org/law/cod/terroris.htm
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Tempest William Shakespeare Essay Although William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tempest is often categorized as his late romance, its plots reflect the major social movement of that timeÃ¢â¬âthe Europeans settling in the New World. As the Europeans eagerly set out to find the New World, they left behind hopeful citizens pondering over what they would find. In The Tempest, through the characters, we can infer that the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions ranged from creating the perfect government to interacting with the inhabitants. They discovered that their idea of the perfect government in which everyone is equal failed to exist. Nonetheless, they were correct in their anticipation that the New World would already be settledÃ¢â¬âby savage Ã¢â¬ËNative AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢. They eventually integrated the Native Americans into their society as slaves. In their journey to the New World, the Europeans failed to establish an ideal government, yet succeeded in incorporating the natives into their own society. One of the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations of the New World was a perfect government in which everyone would be equal. In The Tempest, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s character Gonzalo describes it as a government where there would be Ã¢â¬Å"no occupation; all men idle, all;/And women too, but innocent and pure;/No sovereignty. Ã¢â¬ (II. 1, ll. 154-156) Even as his comrades ridiculed him, he is steadfast in his belief, and simply labels them as Ã¢â¬Å"gentlemen of brave mettle. Ã¢â¬ (II. 1, l. 181). This would seem like the ideal government, and would work in theory. In European society in the early seventeenth century, much emphasis was placed on class. The lower class faced many restrictions, and many citizens were infuriated with the class system. To the lower class, the hope of a perfect government in which everyone was equal was ideal. Another one of their hopes was that the natives, although barbaric, would be of great use to them when they first settled. They hoped to incorporate the Native Americans into their own society. In The Tempest, Caliban, the original native of the island, originally greeted Prospero with respect: Ã¢â¬Å"When thou camÃ¢â¬â¢st first,/Thou strokÃ¢â¬â¢st me and made much of meÃ¢â¬ ¦then I loved thee/And showed thee all the qualities oÃ¢â¬â¢ thÃ¢â¬â¢ isle,/The fresh springs, brine pits, barren place and fertile. (I. 2, ll. 333-338) When Prospero first came to the island, Caliban went through the trouble of finding him the best food and water sources. Because of CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s kindness, this shows that the Europeans believed that the Native Americans would be easy to manipulate, and thus, easy to control. They hoped to be in command of the Native Americans so that the task of controlling North America would be easier. To gradually incorporate the natives into their own society as slaves was one of the hopes of the Europeans. However, their hopes and predetermined ideas were found to be inaccurate. The reality was that the utopian government that the Europeans dreamed about did not exist. In fact, GonzaloÃ¢â¬â¢s government was impractical. There would always be conflict, and if everyone was equal, they would feel equally poor. This would call for a sovereign, which would defeat the purpose of everyone being equal. Hierarchy will always exist simply because it is human nature to strive for the best. For example, in The New World, this was reflected in the colony of Jamestown. There was always a captain in charge. A chain of order was important in order to prevent chaos in times of distress. Conversely, one of their expectations became a reality. They believed that the natives would be savages. The Europeans looked down upon the Native Americans because they appeared in many ways to be subhuman. This was due to non-Christianity, a primitive dress style, and a sense of filth: Ã¢â¬Å"Their hair is usually black, but few have any beards. The men wear half their heads shaven, the other half longÃ¢â¬ ¦some are of disposition fearful, some bold, most wary. All SavageÃ¢â¬ ¦For their apparel, they are some time covered with the skins of wild [beasts]Ã¢â¬ ¦There is yet in Virginia no place discovered to be so Savage in which Savages have not a religionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The Europeans viewed the Native Americans as inferior beings. At first, the Native Americans were inclined to incorporate the Europeans as an intermediary: Ã¢â¬Å"Americans sought to incorporate the newcomers into their universe. (Kupperman 175) They also concluded that the Europeans would be of great use to trade with. As time progressed, both the Native Americans and the Europeans strived to merge the other into their own hierarchy. (Kupperman 174) However, this attempt at incorporating the other soon proved to be futile. In The Tempest, Caliban is always plotting to overthrow Prospero (conversation with Trinculo and Stephano). This is paralleled in the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ constant, underlying worry that the natives would revolt against them: Ã¢â¬Å"Both the Roanoke and Jamestown olonists reported that conspiracies against them were planned. Ã¢â¬ (Kupperman 175) The Native Americans knew their territory, and gradually developed tactics to fend off attackers. The Native Americans were highly skilled warriors, yet lacked the technology that the Europeans had. (Barbour) In addition, the Europeans had resistance to disease that overwhelmed the Native Americans. Eventually, the Europeans managed to seize power in their settlements, and incorporated the Native Americans into their civilization as slaves. Although the Europeans failed to establish a utopian government, their efforts to merge the Native Americans into their society were successful. Their ideal failed to exist simply because of human nature. Nonetheless, they integrated the Native Americans into their society as slaves. Albeit unconventional, the expectations of the Europeans were portrayed to some degree. Through The Tempest, the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ hope of establishing an model government did not become a reality, yet they managed to incorporate the natives.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Jonathan Larsons Influence On Musical Theatre Theatre Essay To demonstrate how a practitioner influenced the development of Musical Theatre, there will be an in depth analysis of Jonathan Larsons works Rent and Tick, TickBoom, which will show how his style influenced other modern practitioners that got some of their ideas based on his works and how his works were influenced by other practitioners in the beginning. Jonathan Larson was indeed a remarkable writer and composer who had his own stories to tell. Although his death came too early, his success can still be seen in his greatest work, the musical Rent and it may be said that As an artist, Jonathan Larsons discovered his passion for music following Elton John and Billy Joel, but it was musical theatre that caught his eye while his parents introduced him to the musical Fiddler on the Roof. As he later on said by himself, he always wanted to write music that could incorporate all of these influences. The path lead him to a four year drama major, but it was the composing that was his main interest and soon enough he started writing music for school productions. During his college years Jonathan Larson got in contract with the composer Stephen Sondheim, who was also his strongest musical theatre influence and later on his mentor. Sondheim told him later that Never the less he didnt go on as an actor and took a step into the composing world,he was still a struggling artist who spend years living his life working as a waiter just to pay his bills, while writing numerous theatrical pieces with a poor success story. With the musical Tick, TickBoom, which was an autobiographical work of Larsons life and was reflecting his alter ego, he finally got recognized, but still not the way he wanted to. As Siegel describes the show in New York times The songs and stories were half-funny and half-bitter tales of bad readings and waiting tables. He addressed his disappointment with putting the sho w of in 1994. But there was still no reason for him to give up, especially when he got into collaboration with Billy Aronson, a playwrighter who played around with the idea of updating Puccinis opera La Boheme. The project didnt get started until 1991, when Larson felt the need to tell the story about his friends who were diagnosed with AIDS. Larson stated himself while he was still alive and that truly represent the path that Rent went since the beginning of the show till this day. Many links between the big success of the show and Larsons death have been made during the time, but it is not said for sure that his death is the cause for such a big success of the musical Rent. The only thing that can be said for sure is, that the show is popular as the numerous amounts of awards that the show won present. , said by Wilson Jermaine Heredi, an actor of the original cast from Rent, shows that Rent really was a new era in theatre. Never before was there a musical telling a story about HI V infected people, drugs and homosexuals. The reviews for the show were well received, as reported in New York times. But it was the audience who gave Jonathan Larson a chance and made Rent to what it is today, an award winning musicals. A musical that is different to others, because it represents Even though Rent is a parallel to Puccinis 1896 opera La Boheme, Jonathan Larson took the idea and collaborated with Billy Areson and transformed it into a contemporary story that was never told before. The audience can get the chance to watch two pieces back-to back in a one repertoire and see the show not only as a good composers work but as an artistic creation. Artistic creation which illuminates Jonathan Larsons brilliance, never the less Rent owes a lot to Stephen Sondheims work. Not that he was reproducing his ideas in his style, There are many similarities to Stephen Sondheims work Company, but they show the extreme contrast. The setting was changed from Upper West side to the Lowe r East side, as well as the characters which are presented as a poverty line of multicultural young people that are homosexual, drug addicts or over the top minded. It can be said that the shows are similar in the way how Stephen Sondheim and Jonathan Larson presented New York and their ideas. Not only did Sondheims influence reflect in Jonathan Larsons Rent in the comparison to Company, but also his musical Sunday in the Park with George. Theres a common theme in both shows which demonstrate a central character that has went away from finishing something that is important forbidden personal relationship. Both shows describe that Never the less, nothing can take Larsons accomplishment away. He was a great composer and writer who was able to take Sondheims ideas and recreate them with his own style. This indicates how big of an impact Stephen Sondheim made on Larson. In an interview for New York Times, Stephen Sondheim later spoke about Jonathan Larson and said that a great musical t heatre composer . Stephen Sondheim as his mentor encouraged him while he was still alive to get involved with the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. Jonathan Larson described it as , but he appreciated the experience later, because it gave him a chance to meet new composers and that gave him more confidence in his work. At the point when he has later written more material he said Rent is classified as a rock musical, because of its rock influence. Examples of such musicals are Hair and Spring Awakening, which are both linked to Rent. It can be said that Hair was a big influence on Rent, because of the impact it made in that era, when people werent talking about drugs and hippies. Hair made a big statement at that time as did Rent. Both musicals told a story of confusion in each generation. Both works may be seen as generational anthems. Not because of the protest, but of its finally, youthful enthusiasm, even when the youth in question is at risk. Hair can be seen as a mile stone for Rent, which later impacted on Spring Awakening. Although Spring Awakening was already written in 1891 as a play, it s shocking story of acknowledgement of adolescent sexuality broke ground aesthetically, going beyond naturalism to presage expressionism. Since times have changed and today society is more open minded to the ethnological, sexual, and all other controversial aspects of human life, the effects of Spring Awakening as well as Rent have changed. In Spring Awakening the characters are still experiencing their awakening spring of sexuality and a couple of scenes might still surprise the audience, but in general todays community is more used to that on stage now. As Rent made theatrical history with transporting Puccinis La Boheme to New York, Spring Awakening made its own kind of history by putting a modern spin on a controversial play. It can be said that Rent had its influences and went on passing that to other musicals. Although Jonathan Larson didnt get the chance to witness the success of his lifes work, he left behind two remarkable musicals, which are both in subject matter unmistakable. Similaritys in Tick, tickBoom, especially in the characters, for which may seem they are sometimes show that Jonathan Larsons work had a deeper meaning and a thought of memories of his lost friends. As a composer his answer to the acknowledgement that he has just lost people that he loves was to write something in response. He later on said,Despite the fact that he never got the chance to see how his words and music inspired people, the musical Rent still goes on filling theatres with his story and the affect that he left behind may be seen in new works appearing on the stage. Jonathan Larson wanted to give all a lesson about how to go on in the time of great loss and not anything for granted.
Some Things Just Really Make Me Angry I was reading Chapter 2, "It's all in the sign!", of Danesi's Messages and Meanings when I ran into a passage that, to put it politely, just really made me angry. Angry because my interpretation of this passage brought back a lot of memories of events that I have had to deal with in my educational "career". There were two sentences, in particular, that really ticked me off. The first was: If a drawing instrument is put in the child's hand, that child will almost instinctively use it to draw--a "skill" that no one has imparted or transmitted to the child. The second was: The child must be exposed to language in order for him or her to acquire it; that same child does not, however, need to be exposed to visual art in order for him or her to draw. These two seemingly innocent statements (that can be found on page 27 and which I have taken out of context) undermine everything that I hold dear. There is a huge assumption in the first sentence that drawing, as a "skill", is innately obtained, especially when "no one has imparted or transmitted to the child". Your naturally talented! Your daughter has so much talent! I wish I had your talent! Your so creative! Well, creative people are like that. I wish I could be as creative as you are! You're the artist of the group/class/school/etc...! Think of something creative/original/new! As I see it, these comments are not compliments of my ability to create visual images but at my "gift", my "talent". Hard work, practice, trial and error, learning the rules, processes, techniques or simple tricks..none of these are examined. The artistic process, to many, remains this mystical and quite godly transformation of something out of nothing and those with this gift of transformation are artistic. What it tells me as a teacher of the arts is this, that I am wasting my time trying to teach everyone, for there are only a talented few (please read the last sentence sarcastically). There is another point of contention that I have with the first statement. What I have taken out of context is the comparison that Danesi makes between language acquisition and drawing skill development. O.K. Danesi states that a child picks up a crayon (drawing instrument) and uses it to scribble naturally and spontaneously, without anyone imparting this knowledge to the child.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Inaccuracies of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) The Consumer Price Index is a measure of the prices of a fixed market basket of some 300 consumer goods and services purchased by a "typical" urban consumer. The 1982-1984 period serves as the base period so analysts can compare other year's changes with this base period. The composition of the market basket is fixed in the base period and is assumed not to change from one period to another. The reason for the assumption is because the CPI measures the costliness of a constant standard of living. Critics claim that the CPI is inaccurate because it overstates the increases in the cost of living. For this reason, the CPI has been said to be inaccurate. First, consumers do change their spending patterns. Even though the composition off the market basket is assumed not to change, it does because consumers change their spending patterns. Because consumers substitute lower priced products in lieu of higher priced ones, the weight has shifted. The CPI assumes that this does not occur and therefore it overcompensates the standard of living. Secondly, because the base period was over a decade ago, the quality of the products has increased significantly, and therefore the prices should be higher. The CPI, however, assumes that the increases in prices is a result of inflation rather than quality improvements which is false. Here also, the CPI overstates the rate of inflation. Many consumers do not mind the overcompensation of the CPI because in most cases it means more money in their pockets, but there are some consequences. This may cause an ongoing inflation trend. The reason why the government does not restrict it is because they are worried about getting re-elected. Even if the President does call for a revision of the CPI, Congress would defeat it to keep their positions. Another consequence of the overstated CPI involves the adjustment of tax brackets. Their intent of indexing is to prevent inflation to cause people to be placed into a higher tax bracket. For example, if your income increases by 10%, that may put you in a higher level tax bracket, but if product prices have also
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Defying Society's Norms When a person decides to enter a sport that is not traditionally competed in by his or her sex, there are many risks. One of these risks is the risk of getting rejected or ridiculed because participating in that sport is not common. However, if no one ever dared to defy the socially accepted boundaries, then women would not be playing sports. There are girls who defy these boundaries and wrestle or play football in high school as well as boys who enter field hockey. These boundaries need to be broken, even if there is ridicule and risks behind them, because of the benefits of this defiance. Society would not progress if people did not take these risks. Women were not accepted into the field of sport until much later than men. For example, the first women's baseball team was formed at Vassar College in 1865. Initially, a woman's version of competing in sport was Play Days. These days were times for women to gather and play sports. However, there was no competitive element. Women simply worked together in a sport. Once women were allowed to compete in sports like basketball, men were not allowed to watch. These standards seem to be a mockery of the ideas behind sport and the competition that goes along with it. However, if this phase of mockery and controversy had not been endured, women probably would not be competing in sports. Once women gained there places in the world of sports, there were still other obstacles to overcome. For example, during World War II, a women's baseball league was formed. However, the women were not there for the spirit of sport and competition. Their uniforms were cute and highly feminine. They wore skirts. This was a way to attract more spectators and to make sure that women playing baseball did not get to competitive or go against any standards for women of that time. Therefore, even when women were defying society, they were forced to conform in some aspects. This idea has been explored greatly in many films. One of these movies is Girl Fight. Girl Fight shows the story of Diana Guzman, a high school senior who always gets into fights at school. Once she realizes that she could put that energy towards fighting, she wants to learn to box. However, her father does not view boxing as suitable for women and instead continues paying for her younger brother's boxing lesson. Defying Society's Norms :: Sports Social Culture Essays Defying Society's Norms When a person decides to enter a sport that is not traditionally competed in by his or her sex, there are many risks. One of these risks is the risk of getting rejected or ridiculed because participating in that sport is not common. However, if no one ever dared to defy the socially accepted boundaries, then women would not be playing sports. There are girls who defy these boundaries and wrestle or play football in high school as well as boys who enter field hockey. These boundaries need to be broken, even if there is ridicule and risks behind them, because of the benefits of this defiance. Society would not progress if people did not take these risks. Women were not accepted into the field of sport until much later than men. For example, the first women's baseball team was formed at Vassar College in 1865. Initially, a woman's version of competing in sport was Play Days. These days were times for women to gather and play sports. However, there was no competitive element. Women simply worked together in a sport. Once women were allowed to compete in sports like basketball, men were not allowed to watch. These standards seem to be a mockery of the ideas behind sport and the competition that goes along with it. However, if this phase of mockery and controversy had not been endured, women probably would not be competing in sports. Once women gained there places in the world of sports, there were still other obstacles to overcome. For example, during World War II, a women's baseball league was formed. However, the women were not there for the spirit of sport and competition. Their uniforms were cute and highly feminine. They wore skirts. This was a way to attract more spectators and to make sure that women playing baseball did not get to competitive or go against any standards for women of that time. Therefore, even when women were defying society, they were forced to conform in some aspects. This idea has been explored greatly in many films. One of these movies is Girl Fight. Girl Fight shows the story of Diana Guzman, a high school senior who always gets into fights at school. Once she realizes that she could put that energy towards fighting, she wants to learn to box. However, her father does not view boxing as suitable for women and instead continues paying for her younger brother's boxing lesson.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
1/8/12 Period 6 The Young Victoria Directed by Jean-Marc Vallee Produced by Martin Scorsese, Graham King, and Sarah Ferguson Production date: December 18, 2009 Movie Length: 105 minutes In a gripping romantic tale, The Young Victoria is a movie based on the turbulent first years of Queen Victoria, her reign as Queen of England, and her ill-fated romance with Prince Albert. As a child she grew up very guarded and protected. Someone always had to taste her food before her and she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go up or down the stair without someone holding her hand, even at the age of 18.She was always under the strict watch of her mother, and her father passed away when she was a baby. Her comptroller(the person in charge of supervising her financials), Sir John Conroy wanted William IV to die while Victoria was still under the age of 18, making her a minor and allowing him to become regent giving him the power behind the throne and control over Victoria. Victoria refuses to sign the regency over t o him and when the king dies, who is her uncle, she becomes Queen of England. She begins being courted by two men Lord Melbourne, who was Prime Minister, and Prince Albert.Prince Albert was told to seduce Victoria by his uncle King Leopold of Belgium because the king wanted to secure an alliance with Britain. Along the way Victoria and Albert learn that they have so much in common being teenagers under so much pressure. They begin writing letters back and forth to each other and become fond of each other. Lord Melbourne gives Victoria bad advice after he loses a vote in Parliament, which is to not replace her ladies in waiting. She invites Sir Robert Peel of the Tories to form a new government.He is honored but refuses to accept unless she replaces her ladies-in-waiting (who were all the wives of the friends of Lord Melbourne) with his. Victoria refuses to replace them, so Sir Peel turns down her invitation, letting Melbourne return to his place again as Prime Minister. This decisio n causes her to be very hated by the people. They shouted at her from outside the castle and even went as far as to throw a brink through a window where she was. As Victoria went through these rough times, the letters from Prince Albert regarding how concerned he was for her helped her cope.He canÃ¢â¬â¢t resist being away from her anymore so he finds an excuse to travel to see her. He wants to propose to her but realizes that he canÃ¢â¬â¢t because as Queen she has to propose to him, which she does. They get married and the spectacle of the royal wedding wins over the public. He becomes upset at the lack of power that he has. He wants to be her equal concerning all matters. She feels like he wants control over her and it causes to them to get in an argument. During all the drama, there is also the relationship with Victoria and her mother crumbling. The King wanted to increase Victoria's income before he died but it was rejected by Conroy.Conroy hits Victoria and becomes aggressi ve with her in front of her mother causing tension between her and her mother. Victoria was upset that her mother just stood by and let him handle her that way. So when she was crowned she banished her mother and Conroy to an apartment in the castle. Her mother was very regretful and wrote to her many times asking for her forgiveness. She missed her mother but couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find the will to forgive her. She replaced her mother with her ladies in waiting, who were her personal servants to care for her, and she became very fond of all of them.While on a carriage ride, and still not talking to each other, a man with a gun shoots at Victoria. Albert pushes her out of the way and takes the bullet. Luckily he survives and she realizes how much she loves him, which leads to their reconciliation. She gives him more power in the house and he fires Conroy for mishandling funds. And she places his desk right next to hers symbolizing that they are equal and also so that he can have a piece of his home with him. They later go on to have nine children, and their descendants are the royal families of Britain, Spain, Sweden, Norway and many other places.They reigned together for 20 years then Albert died from typhoid fever when he was 42. To keep his memory alive, Victoria had his clothes laid out every day until she died at the age of 81. She was the longest reigning British monarch to this day! In my opinion the movie was amazing and told the story of Queen Victoria perfectly. From the title and movie poster I gathered that the movie would be about Queen Victoria as a teen. The movie was filmed 108 years after the death of Queen Victoria. Even though there was a huge time gap, the director said in an interview Ã¢â¬Å"I tried to keep the movie as historically accurate as possible. I think he was very successful! After I saw the movie I read articles online about the actual Queen Victoria and I felt like I was watching the movie all over again. I thought the movie was good because when I was watching, it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like I was watching a boring history movie. I was intrigued by the historical storyline twisted with a backdrop of romance, mystery, and a bit of action. The movie was very well written. If the goal of the director was to tell a compelling tale of the Reign of Queen Victoria, then he achieved his goal without a doubt. I honestly canÃ¢â¬â¢t think of anything I would do to improve the movie.I think that they captured who Victoria really was and fit as much as they possibly could into the 105 minutes of the movie. I would recommend the movie to anyone. I think the World History themes that are best illustrated in the movie are Empire Building, and Power ; Authority. The Empire building theme applies because this movie in a way is about Queen Victoria starting a new empire when she took the throne. She had to handle all of the government and she had no training. She appointed new people, for different political roles and began to buil d her own empire.The theme Power and Authority is the more dominant theme. The whole movie is about her rise to power and how people tried to take it away from her. People such as Sir Convoy and Melbourne tried to take advantage of her and get her to sign her power over to them. But since she was very strong-willed she refused. She knew she had little training but she wanted to be the only one in power! The introduction of the movie was a voice over from Victoria while showing her as a Baby ; as a little girl. It shows how she first discovered that she was the sole heir to the throne. She had an uncle he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have ny children. She talks about how her life was far from normal and how even though she lived in a castle, she felt trapped. The moral of the story was to stay true to yourself and to not let people control you. The movie did very well with the public and received many accolades. It earned a worldwide gross of $27,409,889. It also received 3 nominations for Oscars r egarding the costumes and art design. It won an Oscar for best costume design. The movie was nominated for many British Awards. Emily Blunt was also nominated for Best Actress at the Golden Globes. The film was very sucessful!