Saturday, November 16, 2019
Reservoirs of Infection Essay Example for Free
Reservoirs of Infection Essay Nasal carriage is the principal reservoir, and nasal colonization of the individual patient is the harbinger of subsequent infection. Healthcare workers are propounded to be potential reservoirs. Hand carriage and nasal carriage both are responsible, and they can be transient or persistent. For healthcare workers, the environment of care may function as a reservoir of colonization and infection. The body sites of the patients in the care units may specifically colonize bacteria. These include respiratory tract, any site on the skin such as surgical sites, burns, pressure sores, tracheotomy sites, sites of other foreign bodies, and normal skin, and the perineum and the rectum. In these settings, nasal swabs are inadequate, and culture of the wounds, tracheostomy sites, and sputum may be useful. Environmental contamination in a hospital has been known reservoirs, and virtually any surface, appliance, and instruments in the care setting may be suspected, but they seem to play insignificant roles in transmission of infection (Graffunder, E.M. and Venezia, R. A. , 2002). Modes of Transmission: The principal mode of transmission within an institution is from one colonized or infected patient to another via the hands of the healthcare workers, even though he or she is transiently colonized. Hospital acquired pneumonia that happens with MRSA is thought to be transmitted through air-borne infection (Graffunder, E. M. and Venezia, R. A. , 2002). Control: Handwashing is a time-honoured principle of routine infection prevention and control and is considered to be effective in eliminating transient hand contamination with MRSA and other pathogens acquired from patients or the environment. A simple 10-second hand wash with soap and water can ascertain absence of the bacteria from the contaminated hands in most of the cases. However, povidone iodine or alcohol is better washing agent (Graffunder, E. M. and Venezia, R. A. , 2002). Prescription: Decreasing broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy can reduce the risk of MRSA. Nursing workloads need to be maintained as reasonable level so as to maintain standard hygiene that reduces chances of infection. Drugs, such as, vancomycin is indicated in uncomplicated cases of MRSA. The other antibiotics that are recommended are tetracyclines or cotrimoxazole. Minocycline is also active against MRSA. Linezolid is recommended in skin and soft tissue infections caused by MRSA. Clindamycin is also an effective antibiotic, and a combination of rifampicin and fusidic acid and daptomycin have been found to be effective in such cases (Gemmell, C. G. et al. , 2006), (French, G. L. , (2006). Conclusion: MRSA is a threat, and this threat has been caused by the genetic make up of the bacteria and iatrogenic reasons. Strict hygienic measures in the healthcare facilities, awareness of this threat by the healthcare professionals, and appropriate management of MRSA infection along with surveillance still can reduce the spread and epidemic nature of these infections. References Brown, D. B. J. et al. , (2005).Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis and susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on behalf of the Joint Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Hospital Infection Society and Infection Control Nurses Association. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 56: 1000 1018. Enright, M. C. et al. , (2002). The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PNAS,; 99: 7687 7692. French, G. L. , (2006). Bactericidal agents in the treatment of MRSA infectionsÃ¢â¬âthe potential role of daptomycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 58: 1107 1117. Gemmell, C. G. et al. , (2006). Guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the UK on behalf of the Joint Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Hospital Infection Society and Infection Control Nurses Association. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 57: 589 608. Graffunder, E. M. and Venezia, R. A. , (2002). Risk factors associated with nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection including previous use of antimicrobials. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 49: 999 1005. Huang, H. et al. , (2006). Comparisons of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Hospital-Associated MSRA Infections in Sacramento, California. J. Clin. Microbiol. ; 44: 2423 2427. Johnson, A. P. , Pearson, A. , and Duckworth, G. , (2005). Surveillance and epidemiology of MRSA bacteraemia in the UK. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 56: 455 462. Millar, B. C. , Prendergast, B. D. , and Moore, J. E. , (2008). Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA): an emerging pathogen in infective endocarditis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. ; 61: 1 7.